Designation (also foundling ) for the natural fertilization of plant flowers, in English "open pollinated" (abbreviation OP). The scars of the flowers are thereby "open", that is naturally fertilized by wind, insect or self-pollination (without artificial help by humans). If the seed kernels are later sown by such open-flowered flowers, then new descendants emerge from it, whose pollen donors (fathers) are not known a priori. Through insects or wind can one pollination be done with pollen of other varieties from the local area, but also selfing (Selfing). The father places can only be suspected due to the proximity to other grape varieties.
Open defrost is in contrast to deliberate crossing at new varieties, are used for the selected mother and father varieties and a self-pollination is previously prevented by castration of the flowers (see under blossom and breeding ). It should be noted that actually all without human influence by natural crossing mutants have to be regarded as openly flowered.
There are open grape varieties that have been selected for commercial use and have gained some importance. These are often around table grapes, That's among other things Adeline. America. Augusta (4) Avrora Magaracha. Bacchus Black. Blue from Selbach. Breton Blanc. Capital. Carter. Cassady. Chautauqua. comtessa. Eaton. Eger 1. ester. Etraire de l'Aduï. Prince grape. Golden Clinton. Golden Concord. Governor Ross. Horns. Ives. Jewel. Jumbo Red. King. Lexington. Lydia. Madeleine x Angevine 7672. Magnate. Missouri Riesling. Moore Early. Muscat Précoce de Saumur. Peabody. President. Seneca (2) Seyanets Malengra. Sunbelt. Urbana (1), Vialla. Victoria (1), White Bronnertraube. Witt. Worden and Yonkers,
Images: Ursula Brühl, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI), Federal Research Center for Cultivated Plants,
Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof - 76833 Siebeldingen, GERMANY