Under biological, ecological or organic-organic viticulture is sometimes understood quite different forms of production for the production of grapes and Wine based on measures that are as environmentally friendly as possible, taking into account findings relating to ecology and environmental protection. Confusingly, there are many similar terms such as biological, organic, controlled organic, controlled organic, organic land / viticulture, organic land / viticulture, organic-organic, biodynamic and bioenergetic.
An often asked question is whether there is a substantive or legal difference between "organic" and eco ". The answer is no, the terms are used synonymously. Both are protected in the context of food and feed, as well as agricultural commodities, which are produced and processed according to the principles of organic farming. All derivatives and diminutive forms such as "bio" and "eco", alone or in combination, can occur.
Caution is required when labeling "controlled contract cultivation", "extensive", "integrated farming", "controlled", "semi-natural", "environmentally friendly" or "untreated" or mutatis mutandis, terms that do not indicate production or use Processing in the sense of organic farming For clarification or distinction a short definition of the terms:
Biological : Biology (bios = life) is the science of living beings as a branch of science, which deals with general laws, peculiarities, organization and development as well as structures and processes of living things.
ecologically : The ecology (oikos = house, doctrine of the household) is a sub-discipline of biology, which explores the relationships of living things with their inanimate environment. The term has become synonym developed for "environment" or "environmental protection". A casual comparison is: Biologically means that no chemical club was used, and ecologically means that in addition the environment was spared / promoted.
organic : an organ or organism belonging to the living nature; with something forming a (harmonic) unity. It is meant to express that management takes account of this sensitive link.
biodynamic : This term first appeared in 1980 in the Duden. He is mainly in the Biodynamic viticulture used and means "using only organic fertilizers, treated only with such means (natural means) or fertilized". There are also not undisputed techniques such as consideration of the moon phases or planetary constellations.
bioenergetic : bioenergetics (bios = life, energeia = efficacy) as a branch of biology, biophysics and biochemistry dealing with energy transformations in organisms. The term is in the Bioenergetic viticulture used. There are also not uncontroversial techniques such. B. Music in winemaking,
integrated : In connection with a certain procedure, this means the integration of individual measures, for example Integrated pest management (KIP / IP). It is therefore a package of measures coordinated with regard to a specific purpose.
Controlled : Compliance with the guidelines is regularly monitored by competent state-licensed and / or private institutions or associations.
In addition, there are also the inflationary terms sometimes used in brochures "environmentally friendly", "environmentally conscious", "near-natural" or "sustainable viticulture". They represent a procedure according to specific but often not clearly and clearly defined ecological or biological aspects and are sometimes also used as a synonym for Integrated Plant Protection. However, not so much the names are important, but rather the individual guidelines and measures in detail, which are summarized below. Because if a winery on the website declares itself as "environmentally conscious, close to nature", that alone does not say which measures are to be understood.
The clearest certification is as an organic operation by a licensed institution, because it clearly and unambiguously understand which guidelines are valid. For such businesses, this primarily defines the management of the vineyard, but also cellar technology and, in some cases, upstream and downstream production processes. Related to this is the term sustainability emerged. This is understood as a process or way of life which claims the natural foundations of life only to the extent that they can regenerate themselves without exploiting nature. An essential element as an absolute prerequisite for a stable ecosystem is the preservation of biodiversity, which has become popular with the term biodiversity referred to as. This is done through appropriate measures in the plant protection against diseases and pests and in the fertilization Taken into account.
An important criterion is limited use until renouncement of chemical synthetic pesticides ( pesticides ) and instead the use of Plant- or only certain authorized funds. In pest control, environmentally friendly processes such as disrupter With pheromones or beneficials used. For the soil care will be no herbicides and synthetically made instead nitrogen fertilizer, easily soluble phosphorus fertilizer and approved mineral fertilizers used. In the case of organic production forms, all synthetically produced plant protection products are generally prohibited. The green manure or greening is a fixed and essential part of soil care.
Very often the measures are with particularly low, quality-increasing earnings connected (but only the normal wine laws apply and there are no stricter maximum yields). Also on certain cellar technical measures or medium is often omitted. The fermentation is by many producers as possible by vineyard's own, natural yeasts in the form of a so-called spontaneous fermentation performed, but this is also not an unconditional requirement. The use of sulfur dioxide is kept as low as possible. In addition, so-called PIWI varieties (fungi-resistant) preferred, because thereby the use polluting fungicides is at least limited.
However, there are no general guidelines in all countries or the relevant organic associations, because a lot of experimentation is still going on. It is not necessarily wines expected. But the fact that a wine produced under such conditions can be top quality is proved by the famous wineries Château de Beaucastel and Château Rayas (Rhône) and Château La Roche-aux-Moines (Loire) with the cult white wine Coulée-de-Serrant, In the US state California count the two wineries Fetzer and Mondavi to the pioneers. But also in Germany. Greece. Croatia. Austria. South-Tirol (Italy), Portugal. Spain, the Switzerland and also in other EU countries there are numerous organic farms with excellent wines.
A biologically-ecological viticulture of a producer with no matter how strict, self-imposed guidelines does not necessarily mean one Biowein (Organic wine). Of course, just as rustic as a winemaking as the Orange Wine not (for which there is also no wine-law definition). Prerequisites for the declaration as organic wine are the certification as an organic company, as well as observance of the production rules. After years of negotiations, there is an extended since 2012 EU Organic Regulation, It contains guidelines not only for vineyard management, but also for cellaring measures as well as limit values of certain substances for wines of this protected name.
The production, processing, control and import of organic products are regulated by the EU Organic Regulation. The guidelines contained therein form the basis for certification with annual controls as "organic operation". This is done by state approved bio or. Inspection bodies which also check compliance, but also conduct random checks. Only such certified companies are allowed Organic wines (Ökowine) produce, or this with the Biosiegel the EU and, where appropriate, additionally with a seal of association as such. A membership in one of the many organic associations such. B. DEMETER but is not mandatory. There are countless organic associations worldwide and many more organic labels. In Austria, for example, currently more than 100 different organic quality labels are in use. Some of these labels are issued by state agencies, some by consortiums and organic associations, others are special private labels of large supermarket chains such as "AMA" (Agramarkt Austria) or "YES! NATURALLY "(REWE Group). The basic requirement is compliance with the minimum standards of EU Organic Regulation in order to be allowed to label the produced or marketed products as "organic".
Organic wines are identified by the EU organic label and / or by the name of the organic association of which the farm is a member. These organic dressings (see a list below) have consistently extended, sometimes even stricter requirements. In addition to the EU organic guidelines, the companies or wines must meet the standards of these associations in order to obtain a certificate of association. Again, there are regular checks and, if the result is positive, confirmation of the certification. As a rule, however, the state organic / eco inspection bodies also take over the controls according to the guidelines of the organic associations. However, a Bioverbands certification is not possible without an EU organic certification.
There are various biological-ecological forms of production that are very similar in principle but differ in detail in terms of philosophy and individual guidelines / measures. In some sources Biodynamic Viticulture and Bioenergetic Viticulture are also considered as one system:
All these forms of production include inter alia phytosanitary measures of a very similar nature, some of which have different characteristics, but the same aim with regard to the greatest possible environmental protection (the four keywords on crop protection contain detailed information in this order of construction):
There are many associations and institutions around the world with biologically / ecologically orientated guidelines with similar objectives, but in part different methods:
Additional information in detail about the complex topic can be found under the following keywords, which have already been mentioned several times above: