One of the most important criteria for a certain quality and distinctiveness of a wine is the controlled geographical origin of the grapes from which it was made. The "controlled" means that the corresponding wine law requirements are also regularly checked strictly. The main reason is protection against wine adulteration, Already in the antiquity there was occasionally the custom of naming the wines according to their origin. The area defined for 1716 is one of the oldest European designations of origin Chianti, as well as the limits defined for 1756 port wine, However, the big pioneer for a nationwide system was France, where after the end of the First World War an appeals system ( Appellation d'Origine Protégée ) was decided. It defined a locally defined and controlled origin and the production methods for agricultural products. Under Your Highness INAO (Institut National des Appellations d'Origine) after the Second World War the rules for viticulture were perfected.
In France, the comprehensive term internalized by the producers is closely related to the appeals system terroir, This encompasses the complex influence of climate (Microclimate), soil type. varieties and art of the winemaker on the distinctive wine style of even the smallest area. The French system served as a great model for the wine law provisions of most wine-growing countries Europe and partly also the New world, The laws in the countries not only regulate the origin, but also contain regulations for permissible ones Quality wine-grape varieties. pruning and maximum yield, as well as for production and quality of the wine such as minimum and / or maximum quantities for alcohol content. acid and residual sugar, as well as certain flavors regarding sugar content of dry to sweet,
Since August 2009 there has been a origin-oriented designation or quality system, which divides the wines into two quality classes, namely with and without a designation of origin. The origin implicitly refers to a specific type of wine. In France you go even further, because in certain regions like in Bordeaux or Burgundy the indication of a winery such as Château Latour. Chateau Margaux. Château Mouton-Rothschild. Château d'Yquem or Domaine de la Romanée-Conti analogously an even narrower, often very small designation of origin.
The often used statement "the smaller the area of origin, the better the (presumably) expected quality of the wine" is certainly unfair to excellent wines from larger areas of origin (which of course also exist), but it is very justified. Wines with a "large" designation of origin such as a region like Bordeaux. Castile and Leon or Sicily, or even a country like Greece, Italy, Spain, Austria or Germany usually also mean lower quality, since the production criteria are much lower and far less stringent.
According to the pioneers France. Italy. Portugal and Spain the origin-oriented system is also called " Romanesque wine law " designated. In Austria, such was called in 2002 DAC (Districtus Austriae Controllatus) introduced. In contrast to this is the "Germanic wine law", which is not based on the origin, but primarily on the Mostgewicht (Sugar content of the berries) and naming the vine based. This is mostly in Germany and Austria applied. In Austria, you usually still order your “favorite grape variety” from a restaurant without an indication of origin, for example Zweigelt or Green Valtellina,
However, this does not give any indication of origin or producer. Grüner Veltliner offers a well-stocked restaurant from various wine-growing areas, such as Kamptal. Kremstal. Mittelburgenland. Wachau. Wagram or Weinviertel on. And these can differ considerably in taste. Furthermore, no statement was made about the desired expansion (dry, lovely, sweet). But if you buy one chablis, then you know that it is a dry aged French white wine unmixed out Chardonnay deals, but the variety on label is not specified. At a Rioja again, it is mostly a red wine Tempranillo, but it can also be a white wine.
See a list of different classification systems under the keyword Grand Cru, The EU-wide classification system is detailed under quality system described. All work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available at wine law,