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The Swiss-Austrian doctor, alchemist, philosopher and natural scientist Philippus Aureolus Teophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541) was at Einsiedeln in the Switzerland born. From 1515 he called himself Paracelsus. In 1527 he became a city doctor in Basel. He settled in Salzburg in 1524/25 (today Austria ) and made himself unpopular with his support of the insurgents in the German Peasant War with the Archbishop of Salzburg Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg. Paracelsus criticized the prevailing doctrine of humoral pathology (the so-called "four-juice theory") of the Greek doctor Galen (129-216) and the mere "book wisdom" of medical scholars of that time. He placed the scientific experiment over the pure book tradition and called for the support of the healing power of nature through a natural life. He was the founder of pharmaceutical chemistry and ennobled alchemy by incorporating medicine.

Paracelsus: copper engraving, memorial stone at Einsiedeln and commemorative medal on the occasion of his 500th anniversary of death

Its great importance has long been overlooked. There is much speculation about Paracelsus' early death. They had poisoned him, they had thrown him down a rock, he was as a result of his alcohol consumption died of liver cancer or im intoxication tumbled down stairs and a few more. However, after examining his bones, he probably died of mercury poisoning. He wrote over 200 writings; one of his most important works was "Books Archidoxis". Paracelsus was the first to use the term “spiritus vini” (wine spirit) for the result of one distillation, whereby the term wine spirit and alcohol was equated.

Middle picture: By Martin Sauter - Self-photographed , CC BY-SA 2.0 de , Link
Right: By Werner F. Kunz / H87 - Own work , GFDL , Link

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