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Pasteur Louis

The French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) performed outstandingly in the fields of physics, chemistry, microbiology, agronomy and medicine. He was in the western French city of Dôle in the department law born. And that is exactly in the area where the appellation is located Château-Chalon the famous Vin Jaune will be produced. Already in 1857 he managed to get the participation of microorganisms in alcoholic fermentation. Until then, the process was unknown. He realized in 1861 that yeasts in the presence of oxygen or in aerobic Consume much less sugar than in anaerobic Milieu. In this context, the "Pasteur Effect" or " Crabtree effect " spoken. His numerous investigations of putrefaction and fermentation brought him to the discovery of microorganisms and in 1865 to a process to prevent decomposition, which was named after him pasteurization,

In 1863 Emperor Napoleon III commissioned him. (1808-1873), to clarify why so much wine spoils through acidification. If wine remained open in the air for too long, sooner or later it would inevitably vinegar, but the cause was not known at the time. Pasteur returned to his home town of Arbois. The family house there was converted into a museum. Pasteur has always been fascinated by the complex fermentation processes at Vin Jaune, which are of great importance for this wine. He found in numerous experiments that too much air supply and thus triggered oxidation the spread of bacteria favored of all kinds. But he also demonstrated that a small amount of oxygen can have a positive effect on wine development.

He discovered that for the formation of the acetic acid responsible bacteria ( Acetobacter ). His derived knowledge about the enormous importance of hygiene in wine making and the germicidal effects of sulfur radically changed the methods used up to then and are still valid worldwide. In 1867 he took over the chair of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne in Paris. On behalf of the French government, he researched various silkworm diseases and identified them as infectious diseases. From 1876 he devoted himself entirely to human and veterinary questions. He developed a vaccine against poultry cholera, making vaccination the general principle in the first place.

Also in the fight against phylloxera he was involved. The horticultural expert Léopold Laliman (1817-1897) handed him wines American vines for analysis. Pasteur then proposed in 1874 to combat phylloxera with soil fungi; however, the idea was never tested in practice. Finally, in 1885, he became chairman of the phylloxera commission set up by the Ministry of Agriculture. His numerous publications are available in a seven-volume work. These are dissymétrie moléculaire; Fermentations et générations dites spontanées; Études sur le vinaigre et sur le vin; Études sur la maladie des vers à soie; Etudes sur la bière; Maladies virulentes, virus-vaccins et prophylaxie de la rage and Mélanges scientifiques et littéraires. Pasteur also says "Wine is the healthiest and most hygienic drink ever."

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