The French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) achieved outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, microbiology, agronomy and medicine. He was in the western French city of Dôle in the Département law born. And in exactly that area, where in the appellation Château-Chalon the famous Vin Jaune will be produced. Already in 1857 he succeeded in the participation of microorganisms to prove during alcoholic fermentation. Until then, the process was unknown. He realized in 1861 that yeasts in the presence of oxygen or in aerobic Environment consume much less sugar than in anaerobic Milieu. In this context, the "Pasteur effect" or " Crabtree effect " spoken. His numerous investigations of decay and fermentation brought him to the discovery of microorganisms and in 1865 to a decomposition preventing method, which named after him pasteurization,
In 1863 he was commissioned by Emperor Napoleon III. (1808-1873), to clarify why so much wine spoils by souring. If wine remained open for too long in the air, then sooner or later it inevitably closed vinegar but the cause was not known at the time. Pasteur returned to his native country in the city of Arbois. The local family house was converted into a museum. The complex fermentation processes at Vin Jaune, which are of great importance to this wine, had always fascinated Pasteur. He found in numerous experiments that too much air intake and thus triggered oxidation the spread of bacteria of all kinds favors. But he also showed that a small amount of oxygen can positively influence the development of wine.
He discovered that for the education of the acetic acid responsible bacteria ( Acetobacter ). His deduced findings about the enormous importance of hygiene in the production of wine and the germicidal effect of sulfur radically changed the hitherto customary methods and are still valid worldwide. In 1867 he took over the chair of organic chemistry at the Paris Sorbonne. On behalf of the French government, he investigated various diseases of the silkworms and recognized them as infectious diseases. From 1876 he devoted himself then completely human and veterinary questions. He developed a vaccine against chicken cholera, making vaccination a general principle.
Also in the fight against phylloxera he was involved. The horticultural expert Léopold Laliman (1817-1897) handed him wines American vines for analysis. Pasteur then proposed in 1874 to combat phylloxera with soil fungi; however, the idea has never been tested in practice. Finally, in 1885, he became chairman of the Ministry of Agriculture's Phylloxera Commission. His numerous publications are available in a seven-volume complete work. These are Dissymétrie moléculaire; Fermentations et générations dites spontanées; Études sur le vinaigre et sur le vin; Études sur la maladie des vers à soie; Etudes sur la bière; Maladies virulentes, virus vaccines and prophylaxis de la rage and Mélanges scientifiques et littéraires. Pasteur also says "Wine is the healthiest and most hygienic drink ever."