After the chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) named method for killing spoilage inducing microorganisms in liquids or foods. Pasteur solved a major problem for the winemakers at the time. The bottled wines were often not stable in the bottle. It kept coming back secondary fermentation or the wines got one Vinegar- or Lactic acid sting, By heating to high temperatures can yeasts. bacteria (eg lactic acid. acetic acid, Salmonella) and molds killed and thus the products are made sterile and durable. Certain microorganisms require high temperatures. Above all, today fruit juices ( grape juice ), Vegetable juices, and milk beer pasteurized. This takes place with temperatures between at least 60 to a maximum of 100 ° Celsius in different duration (a few seconds to 30 minutes). The vitamins most of them are preserved, but vitamin C is destroyed. When heated above 100 ° Celsius for the purpose of killing off heat-resistant bacteria and virus one speaks of sterilization,
With wine, pasteurization is rather rare today and rather frowned upon by many producers. Because with improper use, the wine Aroma negatively affected. Such wines can even at temperatures below the boiling point the Kochton which, when strong, as wine faults is to be classified. The reason for this is the volatilization of fine heat caused by the heat flavorings, It can also be caused by dehydration of sugar for the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) come. In fruit juices, honey and milk, a high level of HMF is a sign of poor quality. Not all changes must be negative. There are changes taking place that are usually at the bottle aging run much slower. The wine can be positive as matured or aged Act.
Through today Hygiene standard or the sophisticated one filtration technology you can do without it today. If anything, the pasteurization is especially for simpler wines as well as at sweet reserves for the purpose of durability carried out. The wine should be absolutely clear; on hefetrüber Wine must not be pasteurized. Therefore, the Hefebodensatz after the fermentation subtracted from. The pasteurization is carried out by rapid heating to 65 to 75 ° Celsius (at Süßreserve 85 ° Celsius) in the period of about three to five minutes. Thereafter, a rapid cooling to 25 to 30 ° Celsius. The pasteurization can also be useful at grape of rotten grapes to completely eliminate the flora of bacteria and wild yeasts.
Pasteurization of wine occurs either immediately before or more often after bottling, The fewer steps that are necessary after that, the lower the risk that the wine will be accidentally contaminated with microorganisms after pasteurisation. In rapid pasteurisation (flash pasteurisation, éclair pasteurisation) the bottles heated only 15 to 30 seconds. In tunnel pasteurization by means of large machines, the wine bottles pass through several temperature landscapes. They are transported through a tunnel (tube) and heated by means of spray nozzles with water of different temperature and then cooled again.
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,