With this traditional training system is a high education system that is used for wine grapes and especially Tafelttrauben is used. This form was already in the antiquity used. The picture below left comes from the Corutti family's handbook in Verona around 1375. Horizontal (exactly horizontal or slightly inclined inclinations for optimal sun exposure) are placed between wooden, metal or concrete support posts. These can be lattice-like wooden frames, horizontal bars or wire frames. Depending on whether the shoots One or two-armed systems are also referred to as one-armed or two-armed systems. The shoots form a more or less closed leaf roof, Italian pergola. With the system high yield be achieved. All maintenance work must be carried out from below, mechanized work is difficult.
The system is used today under different names and in different variants, especially in southern countries. These are, among other things Afghanistan. Egypt. Argentina. Brazil. Chile. China. Italy. Japan. Lebanon. Portugal and Syria, In Italy, an inclined shape of the roof (around 20 ° to 30 °) is most common. If it is horizontal, then it is called "Tendone" (tent roof). In South-Tirol it is called "Pergl" and is mainly used for autochthonous vine Schiava used. Stick densities of 3,000 to 5,000 vines per hectare are common. The list below shows the variety of such systems with countless variants.
In the Italian region Brands there is a DOC area pergola, Pergel (also Perkel) is also a vernacular term for the grape, Locally different, this is also partly understood for the individual berry. It is in some German growing areas such as Rheingau. Rheinhessen and palatinate common. During a Perkel hike organized by wineries through a vineyard, you can (in moderation) nibble on the grapes (perkeln = plucking individual berries). See also complete lists under training system (Systems) and Weingarten Care (Activities).
Holzpergel 1375: Verona 1375 - Austrian National Library
Holzpergel today: By Roger Kreja, Stuttgart - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Pergola wire mesh: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Pergl-Weinberg Südtirol: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY 3.0 at , Link
Pergola Syria: By Adel Fardossi, CC BY 2.0 at , Link
Tunnel system: By Andrew Teubes, CC BY-SA 2.0 , Link