In this traditional training system It is a system of education for wine grapes and especially Tafelttrauben is used. This form was already in the antiquity used. The picture below is from the handbook of the Corutti family in Verona, circa 1375. Horizontal (exactly horizontal or even slightly slanted for optimal sun exposure) fixtures are placed between wooden, metal or concrete support posts two to four meters high. These can be grid-like wooden racks, horizontal bars or wire frames. Depending on whether the shoots Pulled on one side or two sides, one speaks also of one-arm or two-armed systems. The shoots form a more or less closed foliage roof, Italian pergola. With the system can be high yield be achieved. All maintenance work must be carried out from below, mechanized work is difficult.
Today, the system is commonly used under different names as well as in different variants, especially in southern countries. That's among other things Afghanistan. Egypt. Argentina. Brazil. Chile. China. Italy. Japan. Lebanon. Portugal and Syria, In Italy, an inclined roof shape (around 20 ° to 30 °) is the most common. If it is horizontal, then it is called "Tendone" (tent roof). In South-Tirol it is called "Pergl" and is mainly used in the autochthonous vine Schiava used. Stock densities of 3,000 to 5,000 vines per hectare are common. The variety of such systems with countless variants shows the list below.
In the Italian region Brands there is a DOC area pergola, Pergel (also Perkel) is in the German-speaking world also a mouth-like designation for the grape, Locally different but this is also partly understood for the single berry. It is in some German growing areas such as Rheingau. Rheinhessen and palatinate common. In a winegrower organized by wineries Perkel hike may (in moderation) of the grapes grazing (perkeln = plucking individual berries). See also complete listings below training system (Systems) and Weingarten Care (Activities).
Holzpergel 1375: Verona 1375 - Austrian National Library
Holzpergel heute: By Roger Kreja, Stuttgart - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Pergola Wire Mesh: From Bauer Karl - Own Work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Pergl-Weinberg South Tyrol: By Bauer Karl - Own Work, CC BY 3.0 at , Link
Pergola Syria: By Adel Fardossi, CC BY 2.0 at , Link
Tunnel System: By Andrew Teubes, CC BY-SA 2.0 , Link