Term (lat. Pestis = epidemic, caedere = kill) for chemical substances that kill, drive away or inhibit germination, growth or reproduction of annoying or harmful animal and plant organisms. These include in the area of pest Management pesticides and pest control biocides, In the narrower sense, pesticides are means of controlling animal pests, with the term being used primarily in the English-speaking countries (pests). Some of the pesticides are equated with the insecticides. In a broader sense, however, all pesticides and pesticides are referred to as pesticides. According to EU regulations there is a definition of "pesticide" that includes both crop protection products and biocidal products. However, the term “pesticide” is rarely used in the legal provisions of the German-speaking countries. The picture on the left shows one treated with conventional crop protection (chemical spray) Rebstock,
What is the difference to the term biocides (bios = life, caedere = kill)? In the narrower sense, biocides are understood to be active ingredients, chemicals and microorganisms used in pest control in the non-agricultural area against harmful organisms (such as rats, insects, fungi, microbes), for example disinfectants, rat poisons or wood preservatives. Products used in the cultivation of plants, however, are not called biocides, but rather plant protection products. Biocides are also called non-agricultural pesticides for distinction.
Biopesticides are non-synthetic pesticides. Compared to chemical-synthetic pesticides, it shows lower toxicity, higher selectivity and better compatibility with organically respectively. Integrated crop protection out. Such a biopesticide was developed to prevent bee death and consists of the poison of a tarantula and the poisonous substances of the snowdrop. In contrast to conventional pesticides (allegedly) it has no negative effects on the bees, However, the use of such substances is usually more complicated and special know-how is required for effective use. In viticulture there are attempts to use biopesticides as an alternative to copper sulphate use.
Although there are clearly regulated provisions regarding the assignment of the many active substances, in reality there is often no difference, or the two terms biocides and pesticides are also confused or equated. A fungicide, for example, can be assigned to both pesticides and biocides depending on the area of application. Pesticides are divided into the following groups according to the target organisms or their effect on certain organisms of plant, animal or other origin:
In addition to the targeted use against certain pests or harmful organisms, there are also combination pesticides with a broad spectrum of activity. Access to the organism is via the respiratory tract, as food poison via the stomach and intestine, as contact poison in insects or in plants via the leaves and roots. The active ingredients can be inorganic ( Arsenic-. Copper-. Sulfur-, Metal compounds), of organic vegetable origin (nicotine, pyrethrum, neem seed extract), chemical-synthetic (DDT, hexa, lindane, round up) or also biotechnological ( Bacillus thuringiensis preparations ) be made. The first chemical-synthetic plant protection product is the insecticide nirosan, developed in 1938, which led to the ban on arsenic in viticulture.
They are usually sprayed or sprayed using solvents (water) or used as dust or in solid form. In the context of crop protection, the use of chemical-synthetic biocides is one of the conventional Method. However, such chemical substances (even with controlled use) can lead to serious environmental damage, which will only have a long-term effect through disturbance of the ecosystem. This damage can be very subtle, for example, thinner, brittle shells in bird eggs, orientation disorders in fish, hormonal influences on the sex characteristics and even the eradication of a food chain link, which can lead to a chain reaction. The synthetic substances are completely untested with regard to their effects in the natural environment, the long-term effects are not predictable.
That is why chemical agents have come under increasing negative fire in public opinion. One tries to reduce the use of pesticides to the absolutely necessary minimum or at best to do without them altogether. It is only sprayed at infestation pressure if the damage threshold threatens to be exceeded. This is why biotechnological, environmentally friendly processes are increasingly being used. As part of organic farming and Biological crop protection chemical agents and therefore pesticides are not permitted. At the Integrated crop protection they are only used if ecological Measures do not take effect. This results in the fact that in the Organic viticulture only to the smallest possible extent, in biodynamic and Bioenergetic viticulture are hardly or not used or are prohibited.
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