The Italian jurist Petrus de Crescentiis or Pier (o) de Crescenzi (1230 / 1233-1320 / 1321) studied medicine and law at the University of Bologna and taught there as a professor. He also worked in northern Italy for several cities as a lawyer. In 1299 he retired to his estate to study literary agriculture and botany. In 1303 his book "Liber Commodorum Ruralium" (Book on Agriculture) was published; The picture below shows a woodcut, which was issued as a stamp. The fourth book "From Vineyards and Vines" is dedicated to the wine and contains many illustrations, such as a calendar of seasons (picture below, Museum Condé, Chantilly in the Oise). It was translated into many languages at the end of the 15th century, for example, on the orders of Emperor Charles V (1500-1558) into French.
Although Peter Crescentiis quotes the four ancient authors Varro (5th century BC), Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD), Columella (1st half 1st century) and Palladius (4th century), but develops new ideas and describes the important ones with a lot of expertise Vinification techniques, He points to the importance of filling the barrels with wine (without empty space ), to prevent the wine too vinegar becomes. In addition, he also recommends covering the wine with a layer of olive oil to prevent it from spoiling ( oxidation ) to protect. The wines are ranked by him according to the age in the three quality classes "new" under one year, "middle" up to four years and "old" over four years. He prefers two-year-old wine and believes that young wine has no digestive or water-stimulating effect and also bloats the belly. Old wines are often bitter and should therefore be mixed with water.
He also mentions a wine of the sort Trebbiano as noble and durable and praises the Albana beyond measure. As the successor one can perhaps today's DOCG white wine Albana di Romagna describe. In his work "Trattato della Agricoltura" Crescentiis described the grape varieties of northern Italy. Among them was a named Porcina, of which according to a hypothesis allegedly the variety Lambrusca di Alessandria to descend.