The French oenologist Émile Peynaud (1912-2004) was one of the most important wine critic, Scientists and teachers in this field. He worked closely with the "Father of Wine Science" Jean Ribérau-Gayon and came after the Second World War to the Institute of Oenology of the University of Bordeaux. From the late 1940s he served for many Châteaux in Bordeaux in matters of winemaking as consultant, The selection of only healthy and especially ripe grapes was an important concern to him and in this regard he made special efforts to give the Bordeaux wine more balance and longevity. The list reads like a "who's who" of the most famous Bordeaux châteaux:
Château Beychevelle. Château Lafite-Rothschild. Château Léoville-Las-Cases. Château Margaux. Château Cheval Blanc. Château Ducru-Beaucaillou. Château Haut-Brion. Château Pape-Clément and Château Pichon-Longueville Comtesse, This later took him to many wineries in the world, including serving as a consultant in the founding of the famous wineries Carras (Meliton-Greece, 1960s) and Ca 'del Bosco (Lombardy-Italy, 1970s). He always strove to leave nothing to chance during the vinification process and already shaped practices that had become self-evident at the beginning of the 1950s. These include the mastery of science gained through scientific research malolactic fermentation and the maceration with red wines.
Peynaud wrote numerous wine books and about 300 treatises on the winemaking. He had a great talent for passing on his knowledge in an understandable and compelling way. Equally important for him was the ability to properly taste and became an absolute specialist. Subjectivity and objectivity in one wine review are always subject of heated debates, the second is often doubted. He noted in his book "The High School of Wine Connoisseurs", published in 1985 for the first time: "The paradox of the tasting is the fact that it wants to be an objective process, but works with subjective means in the sense that these are related to the examined object.
The wine is the object, the degustator the subject. The human senses are used as measuring instruments. You can set rules for their proper functioning, increase their precision, eliminate sources of error, but the taster is not only an executive, but also an interpreter and judge. The Degustator needs to be cool and precise in its flavor analysis, rigorous in its implications, but committed in its judgment. " Peynaud considered proper wine tasting ability as essential to optimum winemaking as a thorough knowledge of oenology, By the way, Peynaud was a strict opponent of the decanting for the purpose of oxygen contact, which he even found negative. See also below wine address,