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Phenicia

Term for an ancient stretch of land that stretched as a coastal strip on the Mediterranean and parts of today's two states Lebanon and Syria included. The Semitic people of the Phoenicians (also Phoenicians or Phoenicians) immigrated here towards the end of the 3rd millennium. In the Bible is the area of the Israelites described as the "land of red purple" (Greek: Phoinike = purple) because of the purple snail secretion used there for dyeing textiles. In the Bible, the inhabitants are called Canaanites or by the name of their cities, especially Sidonites. The Phoenicians who settled in North Africa (Carthage) were called Punier by the Romans. But Phenicia was never a political unit, but consisted of several city-states. Arados (Arwad), Berytos (Beirut), Byblos (Djebeil), Sidon (Sayda), Tripoli (Tarãbulus), Tyros (Sur) and Ugurit (Latakia). Until 1200 BC The Phoenicians were under cultural and political influence Egypt Then the two cities of Sidon and Tire won a dominant position.

Phenicia - Map / Temple of the Obelisks 1900 to 1600 BC Chr.

It is worth noting that the Phoenicians in the 15th century BC The first verifiable alphabet, consisting of only 29 phonetic signs, was developed as well as in the 2nd century BC. BC the Blowpipe (Glass blowing) invented. Both were later taken over by the Greeks. They were among the most important winegrowing peoples in the antiquity, They grew their vines on rocky ground and already mastered extensive viticulture techniques in the 2nd millennium BC. They made an acidic, vinegar-like drink from cider, which they called Shekar. Due to the geographical location, the Phoenicians were a seafaring people. As brave seafarers and efficient merchants, they became the dominant seafaring and trading people in the Mediterranean. There are trips across the Strait of Gibraltar and into the Atlantic to the British Isles. They founded bases, colonies and commercial branches on many coasts and on islands in the Mediterranean Sea, so in Albania. Balearic Islands (especially Mallorca), Canary Islands. Corsica. Malta. Morocco. Portugal. Rhodes. Sicily and Spain,

The largest Phoenician colony was the ancient one Carthage in today Tunisia developed by the city-state of Tire in 814 BC BC was founded. Here they planted flowering vineyards. The around 500 BC BC Carthaginians living Mago described the wine practices of the Phoenicians. They brought their viticulture techniques and vines to the countries they colonized. Among other things, they should Nuragus and Zibibbo ( Muscat d'Alexandrie ) brought to Sicily. In addition to the Greeks, they significantly influenced European viticulture. In the 8th century they lost control of the sea in the eastern Mediterranean Greeks, Then the Phoenicians came under tributary influence from Assyria, But even after the subsequent Persian rule, Phoenician cities remained important trading centers. There was an independent culture until 322 BC. BC when Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) conquered Tire. After that, Phenicia came under Syrian rule and became meaningless.

Left picture: Von Kordas , based on Alvaro 's work - This map , CC BY 3.0 , Link
Right: Von Heretiq - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5 , Link

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