Hormone-like substances (also exohormones, telergons), which in the form of fragrances or attractants, in contrast to hormones, do not act in the body, but are released to the outside. The name results from the Greek words ferein = transmit and hormãn = drive or stimulate. In humans, they play an important role in reproductive instinct, such as androstenone (sweaty smell of the male armpit), copulins (vaginal secretions) and trimethylamine (fish oil). Some of these sexually stimulating "fragrance attractants" work only in women, others only in men.
In insects, pheromones trigger certain actions or social functions. For example, queen bees deliver certain pheromones to the worker bees that prevent them from raising new queens. If the queen fails and thus the pheromone delivery, it will automatically start with the rearing of a successor or new queen. In the vineyard are synthetically produced sexual pheromones in the so-called disrupter (Mating disorder, sexual confusion) for the environmentally sound control of animal pests in the context of Biological crop protection used. Among other things, these are the dreaded in viticulture grape (or their caterpillars), which are prevented from mating.
The wine also has many pheromones, which are characterized by truffle flavors in old Barolo wines, as honey smell more mature Beerenauslesen, when vanilla and Oak scents in Barrique developed wines, as Tobacco- and leather perfume in ripened red Bordeaux, as peach scents in young wines Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc, when buttery Aromas in Chardonnays with malolactic fermentation ( malolactic fermentation ), when Cassis and blackberries in Syrah wines, as green apple flavors in Fino Sherry and as Hefiges in large vintage champagnes ( Millésime ). You can certainly aphrodisiac Have effect. See also below flavorings,