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photosynthesis (GB)
fotosíntesis (ES)
photosynthèse (F)
fotosintesi clorofilliana (I)
fotossíntese (PO)
fotosynthese (N)

Process for the generation of high-energy biomolecules using light energy. The chloroplasts (organ cells) in which the chlorophyll (leaf green) is located are responsible for this. With dyes like chlorophyll, carotenoids and flavonoids in Scroll or other green parts of plants, solar radiation is used as an energy source to produce carbohydrate compounds. Doing so carbon dioxide from the air and water to the carbohydrates glucose and fructose converted while more elementary oxygen is released. The absorption of solar energy by plants annually binds around 150 billion tons of carbon dioxide and releases 400 billion tons of oxygen.


In contrast to assimilation is the reverse process of dissimilation or respiration (Breathing), in which sugar and oxygen are breathed into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy. In a cycle of 200 years, all of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is bound in a biochemical cycle in the carbon compounds of plants, fungi and animals, in order to decompose them microorganisms to be released again as gas. From the primary carbohydrates glucose and fructose formed by photosynthesis and their storage form Strength as well as nutrient salts absorbed by the roots and trace elements all substances necessary for the plant life process are derived (assimilates, secondary plant substances). Nutrient transport and water transport are separated in the plant.

The active transport of sugar from the Scroll by the Xylem the plant is in the form of transport sucrose through the phloem. Together with the xylem, this forms the two-part lead tissue. The xylem is used to passively transport the water with the perspiration suction from the roots to the stomata of the leaves. The phloem stores excess sugar in the berries, the stem and the roots. In the berries, the influx of water is blocked after reaching the full berry size in order to prevent the berry from bursting due to the strong osmotic effect of the sugar. Sufficient sunlight, warm temperatures (ideal for leaves are 15 to 30 ° C), a regulated water balance with a balanced ratio are important factors for optimal photosynthesis and sugar production water discharge and Water storage capacity in the ground, as well as sufficient humidity (60 to 70% are optimal).

Important nutrient are for the plants boron. iron. magnesium. sulfur and nitrogen, These are essential for the functionality of chlorophyll, which absorbs and converts the sun's energy so that photosynthesis can be started. The carbon dioxide is absorbed through small closable pores (stomata) in the epidermis of the leaf undersides. The oxygen and water vapor produced during photosynthesis are also released through these pores. The biochemical process of photosynthesis is, so to speak, the first step in winemaking.

The yeasts convert the vegetable sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide during fermentation. Ultimately, the cycle in humans is closed by drinking wine, whereby the alcohol is burned in the metabolism and converted back into water, energy and carbon dioxide. Maximizing photosynthesis performance is the central goal of many viticultural measures (see below foliage care ), since this directly determines the amount of sugar stored in the grapes. at heat stress (above 40 ° C) and drought the photosynthesis is stopped. See also under respiration, the counterpart to photosynthesis, so to speak.

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