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Plant-parasitic microorganisms (formerly mycoplasma-like organisms), which were renamed to phytoplasmas (phyto = plant) in 1994 in order to differentiate them from animal-parasitic mycoplasma. You are the one bacteria Similar, but in contrast to these do not have cell walls, but are only surrounded by a flexible cell membrane. Therefore, their shape is irregular and can be oval, oblong, or varied. In contrast to virus they are able to reproduce independently. They are so tiny that they can no longer be perceived in the light microspop. This group of organisms was not established until 1967 in connection with the research into the causes of yellowing diseases Xylem (Phloem) discovered by plants.

Phytoplasm - Blackwood disease from Stolbur virus

Phytoplasmas colonize the sieve tubes and the cells adjacent to the phloem. They cause abnormal changes in the host plants that are fatal in the end stage. These are yellowing, shortening of shoots, leaf deformation and broom growth, With some types of plants they green the flowers, which take the form of leaves. Phytoplasmas are caused by insects such as cicadas transfer. This causes various vine diseases like Flavescence doree (Golden yellow yellowing), Blackwood's disease (by the Stolbur type), grapes wilt and yellowing (Grapevine yellows) causes. Due to their dangerous nature, phytoplasmas are classified as quarantine organisms in the EU. They are fought quite successfully with hot water. See also a complete list of all diseases and pests below Vine enemies,

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