The region of Piedmont (Italian Piemonte) with the capital Turin lies in the extreme northwest Italy, With over 25,000 km² of land, it is after Sicily the second biggest. The beginnings of viticulture go back to that Celtic Taurine people (who gave the capital its name) and back to the Ligurians. The Romans already knew Piedmont wines (including from Gattinara), but the universal scholar also worked as a wine author Pliny the Elder (23-79) does not mention a single one in his list of the best ancient wines, The wines only came to be known from here in the Middle Ages, when minnesingers praised the excellent quality
The western part became Mark Turin in the 11th century and this came under the rule through marriage Savoy, Piedmont and with it the viticulture was under French influence for many centuries. The term "Piedmont" was used for the first time in the middle of the 13th century, which is derived from the French Pié de monte (at the foot of the mountains). The Piedmont vineyards are mostly located at the foot of the Alps and Apennines on both sides of the broad upper Po Valley. It was not until 1815 that Piedmont was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia and finally came to the United Kingdom of Italy with it in 1861.
The vineyards cover 47,500 hectares of vineyards. A large part lies in hilly areas in sunny areas slopes, The main wine regions are Asti, Carema, Canavese, Caluso, the Vercelli and Novara mountains and the hills of Monferrato and Langhe at Alba. There are well over a hundred approved grape varieties (there were almost 400 in the 19th century), many of which are autochthonous, The main types of white wine are Arneis. Chardonnay. Erbaluce. Cortese, Favorita ( Vermentino ), Moscato or Moscato Bianco ( Muscat Blanc ), Pinot Bianco ( Pinot Blanc ), Pinot Grigio ( Pinot gris ) and Sauvignon ( Sauvignon Blanc ).
The main red wine varieties are Alba Rossa. Avana. avarengo. Barbera with around 50% of the total area, Bécuet ( Persan ) Bonarda Piemontese, Brachetto ( Brachetto del Piemonte ) Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon. Chatus (Neret Pinerolese), Croatina. Doux d'Henry. Erbaluce. Freisa. Grignolino. Grisa Nera. Malvasia di Casorzo. Malvasia di Schierano. Merlot. Nebbiolo (Chiavennasca, Spanna), Neretta Cuneese, Neretto ( Neretto di Bairo ) Pelaverga (Cari) Pelaverga Piccolo, Pinot Nero ( Pinot Noir ) Ruchè. Syrah. Quagliano. Uva Rara (Bonarda Novarese) and Vespolina,
In addition to the region Tuscany Piedmont delivers most of the top Italian wines and competes with them for first place as a top wine region. Red wines account for more than three quarters of the production. Especially the DOCG red wines made by certain producers Barbaresco and Barolo from the Nebbiolo grape established the fame. There was also French influence in these, because the "birth father" of these two wines was the French oenologist Louis Oudart, In modern times, the three famous wine makers Angelo Gaja, Bruno Giacosa and Giacomo Bologna at his winery Braida significant development work. Piedmont plays a leading role in several ways. Here is the largest in terms of quantity Sparkling wine production, The region is that too vermouth country Italy and the world, here this wine was "invented". And Piedmont also has the most quality wine areas with 42 DOC and 16 DOCG zones (there are none IGT areas ):