The Piedmont region (Italian Piemonte) with the capital Turin is located in the extreme northwest Italy, With more than 25,000 km² land area, she is after Sicily the second biggest. The beginnings of viticulture go to that Celtic People of the Taurines (who gave the capital's name) and back to the Ligurians. Although the Romans knew already Piedmontese wines (including Gattinara), but the universal scholar and also active as a wine author Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentions no one in his list of the best ancient wines, It was not until the Middle Ages that wines became known from here, as minstrels praised the excellent quality
The western part became the Mark Turin in the 11th century and this came under marriage through marriage Savoy, Piedmont and thus also viticulture was under French influence for many centuries. In the middle of the 13th century, the name "Piedmont" was first used, which is derived from the French Pié de monte (at the foot of the mountains). The Piedmontese vineyards are located mostly at the foot of the Alps and Apennines on both sides of the broad upper Po Valley. Only in 1815 Piedmont was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia and finally came with this together in 1861 to the United Kingdom Italy.
The vineyards cover 47,500 hectares of vineyards. A large part lies in hilly area in sun-rich slopes, The most important winegrowing areas are Asti, Carema, Canavese, Caluso, the mountains of Vercelli and Novara and the highest quality hills of Monferrato and Langhe at Alba. There are well over a hundred approved grape varieties (in the 19th century there were even just under 400), many of them are autochthonous, The most important white wines are Arneis. Chardonnay. Erbaluce. Cortese, Favorita ( Vermentino ), Moscato or Moscato Bianco ( Muscat Blanc ), Pinot Bianco ( Pinot Blanc ), Pinot Grigio ( Pinot Gris ) and Sauvignon ( Sauvignon Blanc ).
The most important red wines are Alba Rossa. Avana. avarengo. Barbera with around 50% of the total area, Bécuet ( Persan ) Bonarda Piemontese, Brachetto ( Brachetto del Piemonte ) Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon. Chatus (Neret Pinerolese), Croatina. Doux d'Henry. Erbaluce. Freisa. Grignolino. Grisa Nera. Malvasia di Casorzo. Malvasia di Schierano. Merlot. Nebbiolo (Chiavennasca, Spanna), Neretta Cuneese, Neretto ( Neretto di Bairo ) Pelaverga (Cari) Pelaverga piccolo, Pinot Nero ( Pinot Noir ) Ruchè. Syrah. Quagliano. Uva Rara (Bonarda Novarese) and Vespolina,
Next to the region Tuscany Piedmont delivers the most top wines in Italy and ranks with this for the first place as a top wine region. More than three quarters of the production is for red wines. Especially the DOCG red wines made by certain producers Barbaresco and Barolo from the Nebbiolo grape established the glory. Even with these there was still French influence, because the "father of birth" of these two wines was the French enologist Louis Oudart, In modern times, the three famous winemakers Angelo Gaja, Bruno Giacosa and Giacomo Bologna at his winery Braida significant development work. Piedmont plays a leading role in several ways. Here is the largest in terms of volume Sparkling wine production, The region is too vermouth country Italy and the world, here this wine was invented. And Piedmont also has the most quality wine areas with 42 DOC and 16 DOCG zones (there are none) IGT areas ):