Name (also Florhefe) for special yeasts of the species Saccharomyces bayanus, capensis, cheriensis, fermentati, montuliensis and rouxii. These are able to in the first anaerobic Phase (without oxygen) the fermentation the sugar in alcohol convert. Afterwards, the yeasts can metabolize aerobic (with oxygen), so that from alcohol and oxygen a waxy, initially white coating is formed, which covers the individual yeast cells. As a result, the yeast cells rise to the surface of the wine and form a centimeter-thick layer (film), which turns increasingly brown. This protects the wine from the ingress of air and prevents another oxidation, The phenomenon is in Spain in the production of Sherry variants Fino and Manzanilla availed. The resulting flavors give the very typical nutty Aroma.
However, the process can take place only at 14 to a maximum of 16% vol alcohol content. At higher alcohol content, the flor yeasts die off, which in the sherry variety Oloroso deliberately Spriten (Addition of alcohol) is controlled. The process is favored by the special Andalusian climate. Due to the dry air with very low humidity so much water is evaporated through the wooden barrels that an optimal alcohol content results. Below 14% vol, the wine becomes too vinegar, The dead cells slowly sink to the bottom of the barrel during ripening and are referred to in Spain as the "wine mother". Under similar conditions, the French Vin Jaune manufactured. The undesirable occurrence of Flor is called " kahmig become".
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,