There are many hypotheses about the origin of Pinotrebe. A descent from the of Columella (1st half 1st century) and Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned ancient grape variety Allobrogica is not verifiable. For the supposition that they are from Egypt over Greece to France genetic or botanical evidence is missing. That she is emperor Charlemagne (742-814) brought to the Rhine and there on his Pfalz Ingelheim ( Rheinhessen ) is not provable (but not impossible). That his great-grandson Karl III. called the Fat (839-888), which planted the variety in the year 884 near Lake Constance in his "King's Winery", is not proven, since no variety names are mentioned in the document in question. And last but not least is synonymous because of the synonym Clevner assumed origin Italy unlikely.
As a primeval home of Pinotrebe the area between Lake Geneva (Switzerland) and the Rhone Valley (France) suspected. The Order of Cistercian brought her to the Middle Ages Rheingau, from here she spread all over Europe, The French term "Pinot" is derived from the most likely variant of the elongated form of Pinot grapes, which are quite similar to the pin of a pine (French "pin"). The pinot varieties are by no means a family, as this falsely associates different kinship relationships. Rather, they are out mutations a Pinot-Ursorte originated. But so will be Klonmutanten In addition, these are mutants only "slightly" changed descendants. In any case, they were among the "nobler" in the Middle Ages Franconian varieties :
The age of the Pinot vine is estimated at around 2,000 years. That does not just explain the innumerable Synonyms, but also the numerous mutations (varieties) and Clones that originated during this long time. It is therefore not a particularly "mutant" variety, as you can read often. There are today around one thousand clones registered in the official lists of grape varieties of the countries worldwide, which are in relation to morphology (Berries, leaves, shoots), earnings, Flowering / maturity and sensory Distinguish characteristic of the wine, genetically but (almost) identical. These clones were selected on the basis of special, often for certain climatic or local conditions particularly optimal properties. Among the most successful of its kind in the world are those named after the famous Burgundian city Dijon clones,
Pinot Noir are Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc, and mutated later other varieties. Because of the identical DNA profiles However, it can not be determined in natural crosses whether Noir, Blanc, Gris, Meunier or Précoce was involved, which is why only "Pinot" is given as the parent. Over 150 European grape varieties come from natural crossing of the three leading varieties Gouais blanc (White Heunisch), Pinot or Traminer (Savagnin Blanc). In the 1990s, 352 grape varieties one DNA analysis in cooperation of the University of California in Davis (Carole Meredith ) and the University of Montpellier (Jean-Michel Boursiquot ). In more than 30 varieties, a parenting Pinot x Gouais Blanc (or vice versa) was detected. Natural crosses and mutations thereof are (the new varieties with Pinot Blanc, Gris or Noir are listed there; in contrast to natural crosses, the type of game is known):
The descent is still not 100% clear. For one of ampelographers Louis Levadoux in 1956 suspected descent from Wild vines so far no genetic relationship could be detected. In the year 2000 the am Klosterneuburger Weinbauinstitut (Lower Austria) by Dr. med. Ferdinand Regner carried out a DNA analysis Parent-offspring relationship between Pinot and Traminer (Savagnin Blanc). Specifically, Traminer is assumed to be a descendant of Pinot, although the inverse relationship can not be ruled out. However, the black Riesling (Pinot Meunier) defined as second parent in this analysis is doubted by other biologists because it is considered a Pinot Noir mutation.
The oldest names of the Pinot vine, some of which are still used today, were Auvernat. Morillon and Noirien in different spellings, but were used confusingly for other grape varieties. It was first mentioned as Moreillon in 1283 as a variety in the municipality of Beauvais near Paris. The name Pinot first appeared in 1375 in an edict of the Duke of Burgundy Philip II of the Bold (1342-1404), in which he favored Pinot Vermeil against the widespread high yielding but qualitatively weak variety Gamay decided. With a 1394 mention of Pinoz (Mz. Of Pinot) is indirectly indicated that there are several Pinotarten. Until then no / hardly species / colors were mentioned. From the 15th century, various spellings such as Pignotz, Pinot, Pynos, Pinotz, Pineau u. Ä. used. It was only in 1896 at a congress in Chalon-sur-Saône (Burgundy), the unified name Pinot decided.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)