There are many hypotheses about the origin of the Pinotrebe. Ancestry from that of Columella (1st half 1st century) and Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned ancient grape variety Allobrogica cannot be verified. For the guess that they are from Egypt about Greece to France genetic or botanical evidence is missing. That they are emperors Charlemagne (742-814) brought to the Rhine and there on his Pfalz Ingelheim ( Rheinhessen ) planted is not provable (but not impossible). That his great-grandson Charles III. called der Dicke (839-888), who had the variety planted in 884 near Lake Constance in its "Königsweingarten", is not proven, since no variety names are mentioned in the document in question. And last but not least is that due to the synonym Clevner assumed origin Italy unlikely.
The area between Lake Geneva (Switzerland) and the Rhone Valley (France) suspected. The order of the Cistercian brought them to the Middle Ages Rheingau, from here it spread throughout Europe, The French term "Pinot" is derived from the most likely variant of the elongated shape of the Pinot grapes, which are quite similar to the cones of a pine (French "pin"). The Pinot varieties are by no means a family, as this incorrectly associates different relationships. Rather, they are out mutations a Pinot-Ursorte originated. Likewise, too Klonmutanten added, these are only "slightly" changed offspring compared to mutants. In any case, they were among the “nobler” in the Middle Ages Franconian varieties :
The age of the Pinot vine is estimated to be around 2,000 years. That doesn't just explain the myriad Synonyms, but also the numerous mutations (varieties) and Clones that have arisen over this long period. So it is not a particularly "mutation-friendly" variety, as you can often read. Today there are around a thousand clones registered in the official grape variety lists of the countries worldwide, which are related morphology (Berries, leaves, shoots), earnings, Flowering / ripening time and sensory Differentiate property of wine, but are genetically identical (almost) identical. These clones were selected on the basis of special properties, which are often optimal for certain climatic or local conditions. The most successful of their kind worldwide include those named after the famous Burgundian city Dijon clones,
From Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc, as well as other varieties later, mutated. Because of the identical DNA profiles In the case of natural crossings, however, it cannot be determined whether Noir, Blanc, Gris, Meunier or Précoce was involved, which is why only "Pinot" is given as the parent. Over 150 European grape varieties come from the three leading varieties through natural crossing Gouais Blanc (White Heunisch), Pinot or Traminer (Savagnin Blanc). In the 1990s, 352 grape varieties became one DNA analysis in collaboration of University of California in Davis (Carole Meredith ) and the university in Montpellier (Jean-Michel Boursiquot ) subjected. Parenthood Pinot x Gouais Blanc (or vice versa) was found in over 30 varieties. Natural crossings and mutations thereof are (the new varieties with Pinot Blanc, Gris or Noir are listed there; in contrast to natural crossings, the type of game is known):
The pedigree is still not 100% clear. For one of the ampelographers Louis Levadoux suspected descent from 1956 Wild vines no genetic relationship has been established so far. In the year 2000 by Klosterneuburg Wine Institute (Lower Austria) by Dr. Ferdinand Regner performed DNA analyzes Parent-offspring relationship between Pinot and Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) found. Traminer is specifically assumed to be a descendant of Pinot, although the reverse relationship cannot be ruled out. The black Riesling (Pinot Meunier) defined as the second parent in this analysis is, however, questioned by other biologists because it is considered a Pinot Noir mutation.
The oldest designations for the Pinot vine, some of which are still used today, were Auvernat. Morillon and Noirien in different spellings, which were confusingly used for other grape varieties. It was first mentioned as a Moreillon in 1283 as a variety in the municipality of Beauvais near Paris. The name Pinot first appeared in 1375 in an edict of the Duke of Burgundy Philip II the Bold (1342-1404), in which he favored Pinot Vermeil against the popular, profitable but poor quality variety Gamay decided. When Pinoz (Mz. Von Pinot) is mentioned in 1394, it is indirectly indicated that there are several Pinot species. Until then, no / hardly any types / colors were mentioned. From the 15th century, different spellings such as Pignotz, Pinot, Pynos, Pinotz, Pineau u. Ä. used. It wasn't until 1896 that the uniform name Pinot was decided at a congress in Chalon-sur-Saône (Burgundy).
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)