The red grape variety comes from France. Around 300 Synonyms attest to the old age and worldwide distribution in almost all of them wine-producing countries, Important or historically significant alphabetically grouped by country are for example Augustiner, Auvernas, Blauer Klevner, Blauer Spätburgunder, Frühschwarzer, Klävner, Klebroth, Klevner, Möhrchen, Moréote, Schwarzburgunder, Schwarzer, Schwarzer Burgunder, Schwarzer Traminer, Spätburgunder, Süßrot, Thalroter ( Germany ); Auvernat, Auvernas, Auvergnat, Berligout, Bourguignon, Clevner, Formentin Noir, Morillon Noir, Mourillon, Noble Joué, Noirien Franc, Noirien Noir, Orléanais, Pignola, Pignolet, Pineau de Bourgogne, Pineau de Bourgoyne, Pineau de Chambertin Pineau Noir de Gevrey, Plant Doré, Vert Doré ( France ); Pinot Nero ( Italy ); Cerna, Pino Ceren, Pino Fran, Pino Negru, Pino Nero ( Moldova ); Blauburgunder, Blauer Burgunder, Blauer Klevner, Clevner, Klevner, Schwarzburgunder, Schwarzer Burgunder ( Austria ); Pinot Cernii, Pinot Cherny ( Russia ); Pinot Noir, Burgundy, Clevner, Cortaillod, Dole, Klävner, Klevner, Salvagnin Noir, Savagnin Noir ( Switzerland ); Burgundské Modré, Rulandské Modré ( Slovakia ); Rulandské Modré, Burgundské Modré ( Czech Republic ); Kékburgundi, Kisburgundi ( Hungary ); Black Burgundy, Franc Pineau, Gamay Beaujolais ( United States ).
Despite apparently suggesting synonyms or morphological or name similarities not to the varieties Béclan. Blauburger. Blaufränkisch. Brun Fourca. Gamay (Dole), Gouget Noir. Persan. Pineau d'Aunis. Tressot Noir or Trousseau Noir be confused. It is most likely the Pinot Ursorte with many game types respectively. Clone and mutations, According to 2000 DNA analysis there is one Parent-offspring relationship between Pinot (see there in detail) and Traminer (Savagnin Blanc). Traminer is specifically assumed to be a descendant of Pinot, although the reverse relationship cannot be ruled out. The old synonym Schwarzer Traminer indicates this relationship, although of course there was no concrete knowledge about it at the time this name was created. Somatic mutations are Pinot Meunier (Black Riesling) and Samtrot, although the latter is sometimes also considered a mutation of the former.
The three types of Pinot Noir, Pinot Blanc and Pinot gris have their genes through natural intersections (often with the partner Gouais Blanc ) passed on. However, these three varieties have an almost identical DNA profile, which is why natural crossings cannot be determined by DNA analysis as to what this was. Therefore only Pinot specified (see a list there). Pinot Noir is one of the best grape varieties in the world Cépages nobles, Due to the excellent properties, the vine was and is a very popular crossbreed partner in many countries worldwide new varieties, Those were Belek. Bermet. Buket. Carmina. Carmi Noir. Diolinoir. Domina. Hebros. Jagodinka. Ketrosy. kolor. Mol Kara. Orfej. Palestina. Petra. Pinotage. Pinot Nova. Pliniana. prior. Rainha. Ravat noir. Red Milan. Schönburger. Skif. Vignoles and Župljanka,
It is a very old variety that may have been around for 2,000 years (see also under Pinot ). There are countless sources / variants with often different years about the date / year when Pinot Noir was first mentioned or surfaced in the individual countries. The mentions related to the 9th century Charlemagne (742-814) must be considered legends (but cannot be excluded) because it is unclear which grape varieties were meant exactly. In any case, it is one of the classic ones Franconian varieties and could have been spread with the Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) during the time of the Franconian Empire. Reliable annual figures are 1283 (Moreillon) and 1375 (Pinot Vermeil) in France, 1470 (Clebroit = Klebroth) in Germany in the municipality of Hattenheim im Rheingau, in Switzerland in 1766 (Cortaillod) and in Austria, Hungary and Italy the 18th century.
The German name Pinot Noir is actually misleading because it is an early maturing variety. The "late" is a demarcation from the maturing about two weeks earlier Frühburgunder (Mutation from Pinot Noir). The vine is sensitive to late frosts, as well as prone to Verrieseln, both mildews. Botrytis and viral diseases, It thrives best in a relatively cool climate. Burgundy and comparable areas in higher altitudes, such as those in Europe in parts of Germany and Switzerland, and overseas in Canada, Oregon, California (Carneros, Sonoma, Central Coast), New Zealand and Australia (Victoria, Tasmania) are considered ideal occurrence. It produces full-bodied, ruby-red-violet red wines with harmonious acid and tannin contents, as well as typical, fruity aromas of berries and bitter almonds. The variety is particularly suitable, the specific terroir because they are very sensitive to differences from soil type and microclimate responds.
In Burgundy, Pinot Noir is the dominant red wine variety, this fact has led to many differently classified plots or the system of Burgundy classification guided. In the 19th century, the variety developed as the basis for the very large Burgundy wines such as B. from Domaine de la Romanée-Conti at the Cote d'Or, On Romanée-Conti Vintage 1990 of this winery counts with $ 28.112 for a bottle at one auction in 1996 at Sotheby's to the most expensive wines in the world, in the Burgundy are planted with ~ 10,500 hectares. In the Champagne the variety occupies ~ 13,000 hectares, which is around 30% of the vineyard area. There he is pressed white ( Blanc de noirs ) and is next to it Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay important component of the finest champagne, in the Alsace are planted with 3,758 hectares. The French acreage totals 29,738 hectares.
Outside of France, Pinot Noir is represented in almost all wine-growing countries in the world. In Germany As a Pinot Noir with 11,733 hectares of vineyards, the variety occupies first place among the red wine varieties and is particularly popular in the growing regions Ahr. to bathe. palatinate. Rheinhessen and Wuerttemberg widespread. In the Switzerland Pinot Noir is the most common grape variety and occupies around 4 thirds of the total area with 4,402 hectares. In Sierre in the canton Wallis the international wine competition is held annually Mondial du Pinot Noir organized. In Austria are planted under the name Pinot Noir 649 hectares with increasing tendency.
Other countries in Europe and North Africa are Algeria (1,510 ha), England (233 ha), Israel (10 ha), Italy mainly in South Tyrol (5,046 ha), Kazakhstan (180 ha), Croatia (180 ha), Luxembourg (3 ha), Moldova (6,521 ha), Portugal (148 ha), Romania (1,089 ha), Russia (533 ha), Spain (1,044 ha), Czech Republic (688 ha), Turkey (3 ha), Ukraine (767 ha) and Hungary (1,091 ha). In the United States In 2004 the film "Sideways" triggered a true Pinot Noir boom in California (two couples visit California wineries, enjoy wine and philosophize about it). Here it is grown on a total of 15,091 hectares; especially in Sonoma County and Monterey County, Other US states are Idaho. Michigan. New Mexico. new York (136 ha), Oregon. Texas (28 ha) Virginia and Washington (127 ha). In total, this resulted in 16,676 hectares in the United States.
Other countries are overseas Argentina (1,802 ha), Australia especially in the state of Victoria (4,690 ha), Brazil (145 ha), Chile in the cooler north, as well as Bío Bío (2,884 ha), China (40 ha), India. Japan (64 ha), Canada (640 ha), Myanmar (7 ha), New Zealand especially in the Marlborough area (4,776 hectares), Peru (1 ha), South Africa (962 ha), Thailand (1 ha) and Uruguay (55 ha). The variety Pinot Noir occupied a total of 98,395 hectares of vineyards in 2010 with a rapidly increasing trend. Compared to 1990 with 41,539 hectares at the time, this was an increase of 140%. It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 10.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)