Designation (also Pichiu, Pisccu, Pisku, Phishgo) for one spirits who in Chile and Peru is considered a national drink. The exclusive right to make a drink called Pisco is claimed by both countries and has been the subject of long legal disputes. The name means after the most common variant "flying bird" (Pisqu in the Inca language Quechua); as one feels supposedly after the enjoyment. According to a second variant, the name derives from the port city of Pisco, located in the south of Peru, from which most of the production is shipped to Europe. According to a third variant, it derives from vessels called Pisko or Pisquillo. The best-known pisco-based mixed drink is Pisco Sour, which is mixed with lemon juice, sugar and egg whites. Pisco should be enjoyed as pure as possible without the addition of ice. A similar brandy is the singani out Bolivia which, however, is much more aromatic.
The pisco was by Spanish settlers as early as the mid-16th century as a cheaper alternative to the pomace brandy Orujo "invented". The first documentary mention in the then Spanish Viceroyalty Peru (to which the entire territory dominated by the Spaniards as Chile belonged until 1778) dates from the year 1613. He was especially popular among the sailors on the long boat trips between the motherland and the colonies and also exported in large quantities to Europe. In California it was very popular during the gold rush in the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century. It is mainly produced in the Ica region in the Tacama and Ocucaje growing areas (including the port of Pisco), in the Lima region, and in the southern regions of Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna.
Approved are the non-aromatic varieties Mollar ( Negramoll ), Negra Corriente ( Listán Prieto ) Quebranta and Uvina ( Pecorino?), as well as the aromatic Albilla ( Albillo Mayor?) Italia, Moscatel ( Muscat Blanc ) and Torontel ( Moscatel Amarillo ). The alcohol content must be between 38 and 48% vol. There are the classes "Puro" (a variety), "Mosto Verde" (green must, residual sweet by interrupted fermentation), "Aromático" (aromatic grapes) and "Acholado" (blend of different varieties). Before bottling, it must be stored for at least three months in taste-neutral steel or glass tanks. Storage in wooden barrels and flavoring is not permitted. Well-known producers are Queros (Barsol), Inversiones Alepa, Viña Tacama, Viña Ocucaje, Santiago Queirolo.
In Chile The Pisco is produced only since the late 18th century. Here he received in 1931 as the first alcoholic beverage in the country a protected designation of origin. The main growing area of Pisco grapes is located in Elqui Valley in the north of the country with about 6,000 hectares of vineyards. The approved varieties are Moscatel de Austria ( Torrontés Sanjuanino ) Muscat d'Alexandrie. Moscatel Rosada, Torrontél ( TorrontÃ © Riojano ) and Pedro Jimenez ( Pedro Ximénez ). After fermentation and distillation Storage of high-proof spirits takes place in so-called Rauli barrels made of aromatic beech wood between four months and one year. Thereafter, the alcohol content is lowered. There are four variants: Pisco Selección (30%), Pisco Especial (over 35%), Pisco Reservado (40%) and Gran Pisco (43% and more).