Abbreviation for "fungus-resistant vines" that from intersections between Europeans Vines and fungal resistant species of American vines have emerged. In some cases they are also referred to as fungus-resistant, fungus-tolerant or simply as robust varieties. Newer breeds are very complex and so can Asians Vines especially because of the also desired resistance against frost be involved. It follows that all these grape varieties are not with the help of Genetic Engineering, that is, without gene transfer. Most varieties that are today called hybrids. interspecific Varieties or erroneously generalizing direct carrier (Hybrids are not necessarily direct carriers) were created in France between 1880 and 1935. One wanted the resistance of the American vines to mushrooms (especially mildew ) and the phylloxera combine with the quality of the European species Vitis vinifera. Unfortunately, the hope that these vines could be grown directly (standing on their own roots) despite phylloxera was not fulfilled.
Resistant to fungi means more or less resistant to the various fungal diseases (especially the real and the wrong mildew as well as gray mold Botrytis ) that all occur worldwide. These affect all traditional grape varieties; Such a fungal attack can totally destroy the grape harvest. The traditional grape varieties have to go six to ten times a year fungicides treated, which means a corresponding environmental impact. This can be reduced considerably to less than half with PIWI grades. Many of the varieties are also frost resistant, Accordingly, especially in biological, as well as other forms of production such as biodynamic and Bioenergetic viticulture such varieties are increasingly used. Because of their parents, they include European, American and in some cases Vitis amurensis Asian genes too, so there is a problem within the EU. Although this is no longer as strict as it used to be, some strains with American genes are for quality wines not permitted (see under hybrids ).
The list does not claim to be complete, as there are others that meet the PIWI criteria new varieties, The following were after successful trial cultivation in the register of varieties registered and are used in viticulture. The degree of resistance against the individual fungal diseases is of course quite different for each variety: Accent. Allegro. Aromera. baron. Blütenmuskateller. bolero. Breidecker. Bronner. Cabaret Noir. Cabernet Cantor. Cabernet carbon. Cabernet Carol. Cabernet Cortis. Cabernet Jura. Cabertin. Calandro. Calardis Blanc. Divico. Divona. Danube Riesling. Danube Veltliner. Evita. Felicia. hibernal. Johanniter. Jutrzenka. Malverina. Merzling. monarch. Muscaris. Orion. Phoenix. Pinotin. Pinot Nova. Piroso. Primera. principal. prior. Rathay. Reberger. regent. Roesler. rondo. Saphira. Sauvignac. Sirius. Solaris. Souvignier Gris. Staufer and Villaris,
An international working group for the promotion of fungus-resistant grape varieties (PIWI International) was founded in Einsiedeln (Switzerland) in 1999 and has over 250 members, mainly from the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Lichtenstein and Italy (South Tyrol) but also from Hungary, Czech Republic, France, Ireland, Holland and the USA. Many members come from practice and grow PIWI vines themselves. In addition, too nurseries as well as various vine growers and state research institutes of the working group. Especially the winegrowing institute in Freiburg (Bathing), but also others like Changins (Vaud, Switzerland), Geilweilerhof (Palatinate) and Geisenheim (Rheingau) deal with the new breeding of PIWI varieties. The aim and purpose of the PIWI working group is to exchange scientific and practical knowledge in the field of PIWI grape varieties at national and international level and to provide suggestions. That is why, among other things, conferences or regional working groups are held periodically. See also a list of relevant keywords below grapevine,
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)