Short name for "fungus-resistant vines", the intersections between Europeans Vines and fungus resistant species of American vines have emerged. In some cases, they are also referred to as fungus-resistant, fungus-tolerant or simply robust varieties. Newer breeds are very complex and they can too Asians Vines especially because of the also desired resistance against frost be involved. It follows that all these grape varieties are not with the help of Genetic Engineering, that is, without gene transfer, were bred. Most varieties today as hybrids. interspecific Varieties or falsely verallgemeindernd direct carrier (Hybrids are not necessarily direct carriers), which were created between 1880 and 1935 in France. One wanted the resistance of the American vines against mushrooms (especially mildew ) and the phylloxera to combine with the quality of the European species Vitis vinifera. The hope, these vines could be grown despite phylloxera directly (standing on its own root), but unfortunately did not meet.