Through a variety of microorganisms. nematodes. mushrooms. insects. Schad birds and others animals (Vertebrates) can cause significant damage, as well as high ones earnings and loss of quality. This is particularly true in intensive crops such as cereals, vegetables, fruit and viniculture to. According to long-term experience, the crop loss is at least 30% for wheat and around 50% for rice. Plant protection is therefore of particular importance with regard to securing world food. Up until the 1950s, it was customary worldwide to use massive chemical agents in the fight against pests because little was known about the negative effects. Likewise, the climate Change to negative development.
A rethink took place from the 1960s when, due to the increased use of chemical substances and monoculture, serious disturbances in the natural balance threatened the environment biodiversity (Biodiversity). Above all, they were pioneers Switzerland, such as Germany. France and Austria, The first concepts were developed and implemented in the mid-1970s. In many European countries, this is already legally regulated by crop protection laws. The individual pesticides must be approved. The use is often also limited in time. The Conventional crop protection with total destruction of the pests has finally had its day.
The chemically produced substances that are effective in various forms are summarized in the broader sense as pesticides designated; but usually called plant protection products in German-speaking countries. The insecticides are sometimes called a separate category, even though they belong to the large group of pesticides. As part of the Biological crop protection is based entirely on chemical agents, under the Integrated crop protection waived if possible. The two keywords describe the principles and necessary measures for environmentally friendly plant protection. See also under Organic viticulture,