Through a variety of microorganisms. nematodes. mushrooms. insects. Schad birds and others animals (Vertebrates) can cause significant damage, as well as high earnings and quality losses are caused. This is especially true in intensive crops such as cereal, vegetable, fruit and viniculture to. According to long-term experience, the harvest loss for wheat is at least 30% and for rice around 50%. Concerning the protection of the world food supply, therefore, plant protection is of particular importance. Until the 1950s, it was common practice in the fight against harmful organisms to use massive chemical means, because little was known about the negative effects. Likewise carries also the climate Change to negative development.
A rethinking took place from the 1960s, when due to the increased use of chemical substances and monoculture in part severe disturbances of the natural balance with threat to the biodiversity (Biodiversity) resulted. Pioneers were above all the Switzerland, as Germany. France and Austria, The first concepts were developed and implemented as early as the mid-1970s. In many European countries this is already regulated by plant protection laws today. The individual plant protection products must be approved. Often the use is also limited in time. Of the Conventional crop protection with total destruction of the pests has finally become obsolete.
The chemically produced in various forms effective substances are summarized in the broad sense as pesticides designated; but in the German-speaking countries usually called pesticides. The insecticides are sometimes referred to as their own category, although they belong to the large group of pesticides. As part of the Biological plant protection is based entirely on chemical agents, within the framework of Integrated pest management omitted if possible. The two keywords describe the principles and necessary measures of an environmentally friendly plant protection. See also below Organic viticulture,