Abbreviation for "Peptide Nucleic Acid (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization)". A peptide is an organic chemical compound derived from a combination of several amino acids arranged in a defined order (sequence). It is a method with which certain DNA and RNA sequences in tissues, cells, nuclei and chromosomes can be localized in minute quantities. In this case, an artificially prepared probe of a nucleic acid is used, which "hybridizes" the nucleic acid to be detected, that is binds and makes visible. The term "in situ" refers to the detection being performed directly in the particular structure rather than biochemically in the test tube. The PNA probes used are labeled with a fluorescent dye. The method is mainly used in medicine to identify pathogens in human blood.
growing bacteria and yeast cells also produce a wealth of RNA sequences. In viticulture, therefore, the PNA-FISH method, for example, for locating the usually undesirable yeast species Brettanomyces bruxellensis in the wine and the resulting wine error horse sweat (Board) used. Compared to other similar methods, the application is far less expensive and quickly possible. The visualization in this case takes place in the single cell of the yeasts. On the one hand, a statement can be made about the general presence and also about the germ count and its status. If Brettanomyces is suspected, it is sufficient to remove one liter of wine from the barrel or the contents of a bottle. The method is also suitable for the detection of many other organisms. It is to be expected that many other microbiological reasons will arise in the future wine faults can be detected.