The famous ancient Roman city lay at the foot of Vesuvius in Campania, It was the center of a flourishing wine culture around the southern bay of Naples with vineyards from the slopes of Mount Vesuvius to Sorrento. When the Greeks around 1,000 BC. Colonized this area, they called it Oinotria (meant "land of stakes raised on stakes"). They brought their vines with them, which was previously on Sicily tried Murgentina, who thrived particularly well on the volcanic slopes and was called "Pompejanische grape". The vineyards of Pompeii were the main wine source for Rome - the capital of the Roman Empire. The wine was mostly in amphorae exported there. In 79 AD, the four cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae and Oplontis were completely destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius and subsequent ash and rock.
The picture on the left shows the huge volcano cloud, the picture on the right shows the excavated big amphitheater. Through the lava numerous wine artifacts were conserved, so to speak. In the ruins are still more than 200 taverns and taverns to recognize, in a street near a large public bath, there are eight in a row. In one of them, even the wall painting " wine list "To recognize - as the most expensive wine is one Falernian to four As a touted. Further house walls show numerous motives of the winemaking and of wine consumption, A fresco, for example, shows the wine god Bacchus next to the stylized Vesuvius. Around Pompeii, numerous villas have been discovered, around 30 of which were cellars. In some found pressing devices, of which piping to Dolium (Fermentation tank) led. The picture shows the panorama of the forum with the still active 1.281 m high Vesuvius in the background. Since the last outbreak in 1944 he is in a resting phase.
The Vesuvius eruption put an end to all this and overnight the wine supply of Rome collapsed. Around Rome, many vineyards were created at the expense of cereal fields. In a few years, a myriad of small wineries emerged, to the displeasure of large companies. It was probably Kaiser's Domitian (51-96) ban imposed in 92 on the creation of new vineyards in Italy, a consequence of this. The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79), who died in connection with the Vesuvius eruption, reports on the wine of Pompeii and the pronounced drinking culture its inhabitants. He also reports a local vine Holconia.
Incidentally, since 1997, the "Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei" in collaboration with the winery Mastroberardino on one hectare of vines within the excavation area, grow again according to Roman cultivation methods and also process according to ancient winepress methods. Since wine was one of the most important export goods of the Pompejan, this project is intended to research cultivation and production processes in the first century AD. See also below Antique grape varieties. Ancient wines and Satyricon,