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Pompei (I)
Pompéi (F)
Pompeya (ES)
Pompéia (PO)
Pompeii (N)

The famous ancient Roman city was at the foot of Mount Vesuvius Campania, It was the center of a flourishing wine culture around the southern Bay of Naples with vineyards from the slopes of Vesuvius to Sorrento. When the Greeks around 1000 BC BC colonized this area, they called it Oinotria (meant "land of vines raised on piles"). They brought their vines with them, the one below was open Sicily tried Murgentina, which thrived particularly well on the volcanic slopes and was called "Pompeian grape". The Pompeii vineyards were the main source of wine for Rome - the capital of the Roman Empire. The wine was mostly in amphorae exported there. In 79 AD, the four cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae and Oplontis were completely destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius and subsequent ash and rock rain.

Pompeii - volcanic cloud and ampitheater from above

The picture on the left shows the huge volcanic cloud, the picture on the right the excavated large amphitheater. Numerous wine artifacts were also preserved by the lava, so to speak. Over 200 taverns and taverns can still be seen in the ruins; there are eight in a row on a street near a large public bath. In one of them is even the “painted on the wall wine list “To recognize - as the most expensive wine Falernian touted for four aces. Other house walls show numerous motifs from the winemaking and the wine consumption, For example, a fresco shows the wine god Bacchus next to the stylized Vesuvius. Numerous villas have been discovered around Pompeii, around 30 of which were wineries. In some, press devices were found, from which pipes to Dolium (Fermentation tank). The picture shows the panorama of the forum with the still active 1,281 m high Vesuvius in the background. Since the last outbreak in 1944, it has been in a quiet phase.

Excavations in Pompeii

The eruption of Vesuvius put an end to all of this and overnight Rome's wine supply collapsed. Many vineyards were planted around Rome at the expense of grain fields. In a few years, a myriad of small wineries emerged, to the displeasure of the large entrepreneurs. That was probably from Kaiser Domitian (51-96) ban in 92 on planting new vineyards in Italy, a consequence of this. The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79), who died in connection with the Vesuvius eruption, reports on the wine from Pompeii and the distinctive one drinking culture of its inhabitants. He also reports of a local vine, Holconia.

Incidentally, the "Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei" has been working in cooperation with the winery since 1997 Mastroberardino On a hectare of vines within the excavation site, using the Roman methods of cultivation, to grow wine again and also to process it according to ancient wine press methods. Since wine was one of the most important export goods of the Pompeians, this project aims to research cultivation and production processes in the first century AD. See also under Ancient grape varieties. Ancient wines and Satyricon,

Top left: From MapMaster - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Top right: Von Fer.filol - Own work, public domain , link

Picture below: By Heinz-Josef Lücking , CC BY-SA 3.0 de , Link

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