In ancient times brought Phoenicians, Greeks and Roman vines on the Iberian Peninsula. Under the long Moorish rule from the 8th to the 12th century, although the viticulture stagnated, came despite the alcohol ban not to stop. As in many other countries, they influenced Cistercian viticulture decisively, in the 12th century they founded more than 100 monasteries. King Dinis (1279-1325) promoted agriculture and wine-growing to such a great extent that with the proceeds a merchant fleet was built and thus the basis for the rise to world power was created. He was therefore nicknamed "Rei lavrador" (King of the peasants). From independence in 1385, developed a busy wine trade with England,
The most famous and famous wine in Portugal is undisputed port wine, Its great triumph began when in 1703 the Methuen Treaty Contract between England and Portugal. This provided for large tariff reductions for imports of Portuguese wines. Already in 1756 were by the famous Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782) arranged, precise demarcations for the Douro region established. This therefore counts beside Chianti the very first origin controlled Areas. A special role in port wine trading played in 1790 in postage opened Factory House in which British factors negotiated and concluded deals among themselves.
In the 19th century were through mildew and phylloxera most of Portugal's vineyards are destroyed. Only from 1930 it came to a reconstruction. After the end of the dictatorship in 1974, the transition from production began cheaper mass wines on quality products. Due to the climate, the land is ideal for viticulture, because the viniferous northern part of Portugal has plenty precipitation and long, nice summers. The floors are mostly granite and slate. Viticulture is an extremely important economic factor in Portugal, with around 15% of the population living on it. In 2012, were produced by 233,000 hectares of 6.32 million hectoliters of wine. To 30% white wines and 70% rosé and red wines are produced. Among the best known Portuguese wines are probably the dessert wines Madeira and port wine, as Vinho Verde, However, the rose wine created in 1942 Mateus from the company founded in the same year Sogrape and similar products like Lancers by the company Fonseca With 40% of the Portuguese export volume, this has already run out of time for a long time.
At over 50%, Portugal is the world's largest producer of cork Of which about half come from the province Alentejo, Another special feature are the countless native vines. In the "land of the 500 autochthonous grape varieties" these were formerly largely as Mixed set grown. The often same names or synonyms cause confusion, but be through DNA analysis more and more descent clarified. It was not until the 1980s, mainly due to EU provisions regarding quality wines began to create varietal vineyards. Many of the predominantly native grape varieties are there (partly with other names) in the adjacent Spain, Among the first 20 in the table, there is no international variety with a single exception (Syrah). Of the Blend 2010:
|vine||colour||Synonyms or name in Portugal||hectare|
|Tempranillo||red||Aragonez, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Santiago||16706|
|Touriga Franca||red||formerly Touriga Francesa||11582|
|Castelão Francês||red||Castelão, João Santarém||11086|
|Touriga Nacional||red||Carabuñera, Mortagua, Touriga Fina||10175|
|Fernão Pires||White||Maria Gomes, Molinha||9376|
|Trincadeira Preta||red||Tinta Amarela, Trincadeira||9246|
|Síria||White||Códega, Crato Branco, Roupeiro||7145|
|Tinta Barroca||red||Boca de Mina, Tinta Barocca||5939|
|Arinto||White||Arinto de Bucelas, Pedernã||4446|
|Rufete||red||Rifete, Rufeta, Tinta Pinheira||4183|
|Baga||red||Baga de Louro, Moreto||4108|
|Loureiro||White||Branco Redondos, Loureira, Marqués||3469|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||-||3322|
|Trousseau Noir||red||Bastardinho, Bastardo||3149|
|Palomino||White||Listrão, Malvasia Rei, Palomino Fino||3033|
|Malvasia Fina||White||Arinto do Dão, Assario, Boal, Gual||2930|
|Vinhão||red||Sousão, Espadeiro Basto||2482|
|Mencia||red||Jaen, Jaen du Dão, Loureiro Tinto||2454|
|Alvarinho||White||Albariño, Azal Blanco||1989|
|Tinta Carvalha||red||Preto Gordo, Tinta Carvalha du Douro||1311|
|Rabigato||White||Preto Gordo, Tinta Carvalha du Douro||1273|
|Antao Vaz||White||Antonio Vaz||1252|
|Vital||White||Boal Bonifacio, Malvasia Corada||1182|
|Alfrocheiro||red||Albarín Negro, Tinta Bastardinha||1180|
|Trajadura||White||Treixadura (Spain), Trajadura Branca||1171|
|Diagalves||White||Carnal, Dependura, Diego Alves||1156|
|Azal Branco||White||Azal, Azal da Lixa, Carvalha||1072|
|Malvasia preta||red||Moreto, Mureto, Pinheira Roxa||1003|
|Bical||White||Bical de Bairrada, Borrado das Moscas||924|
|Rabo de Ovelha||White||Rabigato, Rabo de Ovela de Cola Res||908|
|Moreto do Alentejo||red||Moreto, Morito||900|
|Avesso||White||Bornal, Bornão, Borracal Branco||685|
|Negramoll||red||Mollar, Saborinho, Tinta de Madeira||676|
|Côdega de Larinho||White||Côdega do Larinho||629|
Wine categories : In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ). The traditional terms Vinho Regional and DOC are still possible alternatively:
Vinho : Wines without a denomination of origin. This lowest quality level is mostly blends from different growing areas.
IGP or IG (Indicação Geográfica Protegida) or Vinho Regional :
A country wine with protected geographical indication. The regulations contain certain criteria such as: Grape variety (85% must come from the area) and alcohol content, but offer relatively large scope. There are 14 rural wine areas; see the list below.
IPR (Indicacao de Proveniencia Regulamentada) :
The former DOC precursor was abandoned in 2011.
DOP (Denominação de Origem Protegida) or DOC (Denominacão de Origem Controlada):
A quality wine with a protected designation of origin. There are grape varieties, minimum maturation times in barrels and bottle, minimum values for alcohol content. acid and total extract (Dry extract), as well colour and Aroma required. Before the marketing must have a sensory and analytical test respectively. There are around 30 quality wine areas; see the list below.
Other names : For the age or maturation of a wine, there are the names Verde (green, no aging), Maduro (old or aged in barrel), Reserva (Reds three years old, one in bottle, one white wine one year, of which six months in bottle), garrafeira (like Reserva and higher alcohol content) and Velho (Red wine three, white wine two years old).
The sweetness levels given on the label are seco = dry, meio seco = semi-dry, meio doce = semisweet, doce (also adamado, suave) = sweet.
The following is a list of IGP and DOP areas in alphabetical order of the Portuguese regions (well-known wineries are listed there):
Península de Setúbal - formerly Terras do Sado (IGP)