Brought in antiquity Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans vines on the Iberian Peninsula. Viticulture stagnated under the long Moorish rule from the 8th to the 12th centuries, but came despite the alcohol ban not to stop. As in many other countries, they influenced Cistercian viticulture was crucial, in the 12th century they founded more than 100 monasteries. King Dinis (1279-1325) promoted agriculture and viticulture on such a large scale that with the income a merchant fleet was built and thus the basis for the rise to world power was created. He was therefore given the nickname "Rei lavrador" (King of the Peasants). From independence in 1385, a lively wine trade developed along with it England,
The most famous and best known wine in Portugal is undisputedly the port wine, Its great triumphal march began when the Methuen Treaty Treaty between England and Portugal was completed. This provided for large tariff reductions for the import of Portuguese wines. Already in 1756 by the famous Prime Minister Marques de Pombal (1699-1782) arranged, precise demarcations for the Douro region established. This counts alongside Chianti among the very first origin controlled Areas. This played a special role in the port wine trade in 1790 postage opened Factory house, in which the British factors negotiated and concluded their business with each other.
Throughout the 19th century mildew and phylloxera destroyed most of the vineyards in Portugal. It was not rebuilt until 1930. After the dictatorship ended in 1974, the switch from production to cheaper began mass wines on quality products. Due to the climate, the country is ideal for viticulture, because the wine-growing northern part of Portugal has plenty precipitation and long, beautiful summers. The floors are largely made of granite and slate. Viticulture is an extremely important economic factor in Portugal, because around 15% of the population lives on it. In 2012, 6.32 million hectoliters of wine were produced from 233,000 hectares of vineyards. 30% white wines and 70% rosé and red wines are produced. Dessert wines are one of the most famous Portuguese wines Madeira and port wine, such as Vinho Verde, However, the rosé wine created in 1942 Mateus from the company founded in the same year Sogrape and similar products like Lancers by the company Fonseca with around 40% of the Portuguese export volume has outstripped this for some time.
With over 50%, Portugal is the world's largest producer of cork, about half of them come from the province Alentejo, Another specialty are the countless indigenous vines. In the "land of 500 indigenous grape varieties", these were previously largely called Mixed sentence grown. The often identical names or synonyms cause confusion, but are caused by DNA analysis more and more origins clarified. It was only in the 1980s that, mainly due to EU regulations regarding quality wines, the creation of vine-free vineyards began. Many of the largely predominant indigenous grape varieties (some with different names) are also found in the adjacent one Spain, With one exception (Syrah), there is no international variety in the top 20 in the table. The Blend 2010:
|vine||colour||Synonyms or name in Portugal||hectare|
|Tempranillo||red||Aragonez, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Santiago||16706|
|Touriga Franca||red||formerly Touriga Francesa||11582|
|Castelão Francês||red||Castelao, Joao Santarem||11086|
|Touriga Nacional||red||Carabuñera, Mortagua, Touriga Fina||10175|
|Fernão Pires||White||Maria Gomes, Molinha||9376|
|Trincadeira Preta||red||Tinta Amarela, Trincadeira||9246|
|Síria||White||Códega, Crato Branco, Roupeiro||7145|
|Tinta Barroca||red||Boca de Mina, Tinta Barocca||5939|
|Arinto||White||Arinto de Bucelas, Pedernã||4446|
|Rufete||red||Rifete, Rufeta, Tinta Pinheira||4183|
|Baga||red||Baga de Louro, Moreto||4108|
|Loureiro||White||Branco Redondos, Loureira, Marques||3469|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||-||3322|
|Trousseau Noir||red||Bastardinho, Bastardo||3149|
|Palomino||White||Listrão, Malvasia Rei, Palomino Fino||3033|
|Malvasia Fina||White||Arinto do Dao, Assario, Boal, Gual||2930|
|Vinhão||red||Sousão, Espadeiro Basto||2482|
|Mencia||red||Jaen, Jaen du Dão, Loureiro Tinto||2454|
|Alvarinho||White||Albariño, Azal Blanco||1989|
|Tinta Carvalha||red||Preto Gordo, Tinta Carvalha du Douro||1311|
|Rabigato||White||Preto Gordo, Tinta Carvalha du Douro||1273|
|Antão Vaz||White||Antonio Vaz||1252|
|Vital||White||Boal Bonifacio, Malvasia Corada||1182|
|Alfrocheiro||red||Albarín Negro, Tinta Bastardinha||1180|
|Trajadura||White||Treixadura (Spain), Trajadura Branca||1171|
|Diagalves||White||Carnal, Dependura, Diego Alves||1156|
|Azal Branco||White||Azal, Azal da Lixa, Carvalha||1072|
|Malvasia Preta||red||Moreto, Mureto, Pinheira Roxa||1003|
|Bical||White||Bical de Bairrada, Borrado das Moscas||924|
|Rabo de Ovelha||White||Rabigato, Rabo de Ovelha de Cola Res||908|
|Moreto do Alentejo||red||Moreto, Morito||900|
|Avesso||White||Bornal, Bornão, Borracal Branco||685|
|Negramoll||red||Mollar, Saborinho, Tinta de Madeira||676|
|Côdega de Larinho||White||Côdega do Larinho||629|
Wine categories : In August 2009 the EU wine market regulations with fundamental changes in wine names and quality levels became valid for all member countries. There are the following new names and quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ). The traditional terms Vinho Regional and DOC are still possible as an alternative:
Vinho : Wines without a narrow designation of origin. This lowest quality level is mostly blends from different growing areas.
IGP or IG (Indicação Geográfica Protegida) or Vinho Regional :
A country wine with a protected geographical indication. The regulations contain certain criteria such as B. grape variety (85% must come from the area) and alcohol content, but offer relatively large scope. There are 14 country wine areas; see the list below.
IPR (Indicacão de Proveniencia Regulamentada) :
The previous pre-DOC stage was abandoned in 2011.
DOP (Denominação de Origem Protegida) or DOC (Denominacão de origem controlada):
A quality wine with a protected designation of origin. There are grape varieties, minimum maturation times in barrels and bottles, minimum values for alcohol content. acid and total extract (Dry extract), as well colour and Aroma required. Before marketing, one must sensory and analytical testing respectively. There are around 30 quality wine areas; see the list below.
Other names : There are names for the age or maturation of a wine Verde (green, no aging), Maduro (old or aged in barrel), Reserva (Red wines three years old, one in bottle, white wine one year, six months in bottle), garrafeira (like Reserva and higher alcohol content) and Velho (Red wine three, white wine two years old).
The candy grades listed on the label are seco = dry, meio seco = semi-dry, meio doce = semi-sweet, doce (also adamado, suave) = sweet.
The following is a list of the IGP and DOP areas alphabetically according to the Portuguese regions (well-known wineries are listed there):
Península de Setúbal - formerly Terras do Sado (IGP)