Designation (also Zonalweinbau) for starting from the 1990er years particularly in Australia developed techniques. At the Department of Viticulture vin CSIRO Modern satellite navigation has been combined with soil and grape analyzes. The productivity of different vineyards or even individual plots can be quite different. The fluctuations are dependent on soil type. climate and topography and can be up to a factor of 10. This fact is taken into account in precision viticulture in the vineyard management. The basis for suitable measures is the collection and evaluation of detailed data volumes. For this purpose, technical measuring systems and methods are used. The GPS satellite-based navigation system enables detailed acquisition of specific data with an accuracy of up to one meter.
The GIS (Geographical Information System) database stores, analyzes and displays geographic data on soil type, climate, topography and harvest history, with developments being derived via past data. Remote sensing via sensors in airplanes or satellites provides detailed data on the vigor of the vines. The best known vegetation index is NDVI (Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index). Another important criterion is the capture of the harvests during the vintage. Depending on the results, the vineyards are divided into smaller units such as blocks, sub-blocks and zones. These are then not managed in a uniform manner, but rather individually and according to needs.
For targeted management at the right time and in the right amount counts irrigation. fertilization. Phytosanitary Measures and foliage care, Furthermore, the optimal harvest times for a selective vintage established. The different zones usually also mean different qualities. For example, specific zones of grapes for a high quality wine and other inferior zones for a plain wine can be read and processed separately. The time-consuming and cost-intensive method is profitable only for large vineyards, so only large companies can Gallo and Mondavi Do something like that in California. From the mid-1990s was (also) by the fact of the world Klimwandels the term Cool Climate Winegrowing which is to be understood as the planting of vines in higher areas with continental climatic conditions.
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,