General term for prohibition or prevention, which may refer to many things. In most cases, however, they were or are stimulants such as drugs, alcohol. tobacco or similar affected. As a rule, this includes a ban (in various forms) on the manufacture, importation, exportation, transport, purchase, possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages from social, religious, moral, ethical or health Reasons understood. Such a ban was in the past on time again and again for individual stimulants or drinks such. B. absinthe valid. The longest existing prohibition is the religiously founded in the Koran, rigorous Islamic alcohol ban, But in many other countries and cultures there have been similar bans again and again. This was a tremendous interference with the customs of the countries concerned, since drinking since earliest human history is an elementary component of the drinking culture,
In Canada there was a prohibition from 1916 to 1927, but wine was excluded as an exception from this alcohol ban. Other alcohol bans existed, for example, from 1919 to 1933 in Finland and from 1900 to 1933 in Ireland. Prohibitive measures with severe restrictions on viticulture also existed in Chile from 1938 to the 1970s. In Sweden, the sale of alcohol is still prohibitively regulated and burdened with high taxes. In New Zealand, Prohibition is still plebiscite today. Similarly, smoking restrictions in the US from the 1990s, and later in Europe, are also to a certain extent prohibitive.
The most significant alcohol prohibition, which for 13 years from 1920 to 1933 in the United States was valid, was adopted in 1919 by the US Congress against a twofold, unsuccessful veto by President Thomas W. Wilson (1856-1924) as an 18th amendment. It was also referred to as "The Noble Experiment" (English for "the honorable experiment"). In the "National Prohibition Act" (also named after the Senator Volstead Act) it was defined that as "intoxicating drink" all drinks with more than 0.5% alcohol content galten: The law has been applied to all of them. This was beside schnapps and Wine of course, too beer (even light beer) affected. Of the many thousands of breweries before Prohibition survived after 1933, only the large, dealing with the so-called Near Beer held above water.
Further tightening of the ban on alcohol was then in the years 1921 and 1929. Prohibition in the US but had a long history, as early as 1851, was banned in the state of Maine alcohol. For the time being in many of the US states only excessive consumption or alcohol abuse was fought. Especially the two Temperance organizations "Women's Christian Temperance Union" (founded 1874) and "Anti-Saloon League" (founded 1895) first campaigned for a restricted and then more and more for a rigorous alcohol betting. As counter-movement, the "anti-temperance societies" formed with especially followers of the Baptists. These continued to regard alcohol as a gift from God.
In particular, the "Anti-Saloon League" was run very professionally by the lawyer Wayne B. Wheeler (1869-1927), who was very good at raising funds and financiers. The multiple millionaire and owner of the "Standard Oil Company" John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), who was impressed by Wheeler's speech, donated $ 5,000. Through skillful lobbying, the ASL achieved that virtually no politician could afford not to commit to the League's goals (whether they were convinced of that is another matter). The success was that prior to the entry into force of prohibition on 16 January 1920, previously in 33 of the then 48 US states alcohol, but to varying extents, was prohibited by law. The ban was actually ratified by many federal states only during the First World War, because this was dependent on referendums (so-called "Local Options"). Taking into account the complicated legal situation in the individual states, more than half of the Americans were against alcohol prohibition when the war broke out in 1914.
The First World War supported the operation of the alcohol opponents, as the United States entered the war on the side of the Entente against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Because most breweries in the US were operated by German or Austrian emigrants (for example Anheuser-Busch). The viticulture was above all a domain of Italians and whiskey was drunk in saloons by Irish and Polish-born workers. These were all mostly Catholic, while the Anglo-Saxon power elite of the United States was traditionally Protestant. The anti-alcohol campaign was primarily the work of Protestant fundamentalists. In particular, they described the German brewery owners as "traitors" or the cause of the alcohol problem and unleashed a nationalist campaign. Even the automobile industrialist Henry Ford I (1863-1947) supported the aspirations, perhaps less for moral reasons, but because he did not want to tolerate inferior work performance of his workers by alcohol deterioration. Any Ford worker who smelled of beer was dismissed without mercy without notice. The strict prohibition of alcohol was regularly strictly controlled by a company security guard, also unexpectedly in workers' residences.
Finally, a ban on the sale, manufacture, import and transport of alcoholic beverages was introduced. In this regard, even the constitution was changed by the 18th Amendment (18th Amendment). It was ratified on 16 January 1919 and came into force on 16 January 1920 (and then repealed in 1933 by the 21st Amendment). Incidentally, the introduction of prohibition against alcohol ran parallel to the introduction of women's suffrage. As offense only the sale was considered, not the mere consumption. The demand for alcohol did not end with the ban, rather the opposite. As a result, the illegal business of production and distribution by criminal, well-organized elements developed in excessive fashion. Ultimately, this led to a frightening rise in crime. The shot went backwards, because instead of eradicating the abuse led by the advocates designated "noble experiment" to uncontrolled escalating black market.
Prohibition prevented no one from drinking. She just replaced good beer and good wine with bad, even harmful schnapps. There were numerous poisonings methanol (Wooden spirit) and rotgut alcohol because liquor was produced under often adventurous conditions mostly in the dark night; therefore, the product was z. B. aptly called "Moonlight Whiskey" (the picture on the left shows such a "black distillery"). Legally regulated exceptions were religious ceremonies. This was also exploited, because the need for altar wine Suddenly, it was a huge climb, and priests became wine sellers. In addition, in the land of countless free churches everyone could start a church. Similarly, wine could be used as a spice for food or for other applications. Another loophole was that wine could be prescribed as a remedy (a recipe is shown in the lower right corner). Many doctors were ready, "medical champagne To prescribe and in every drugstore you could buy medical wine. Certain alcoholics such as the popular in the US gastric bitter Underberg were excluded from the ban.
There were also very original ideas for circumventing the ban without violating the law. So a company made raisin cake and "warned" in the instructions: "Do not put the cake in the filled tub, otherwise it inevitably begins to ferment and it will be wine" . Hundreds of thousands of Americans produced their "house wine" through this clever and clever marketing in exactly the same way during the prohibition era. Also called "Grape Bricks" of concentrated grape juice were produced, on whose package the warning was written: "Do not add yeast, as otherwise the contents ferment . " Another possibility was to buy grapes, because it was allowed by law "non-intoxicating fruit and fruit juices are made." Many Americans became hobby winemakers. Especially popular was the French new breed Alicante Henri Bouschet, which was planted on a large scale.
Already from the first year of prohibition a lot of new, illegal pubs were created. One phenomenon was that a large proportion of the guests were women who were forbidden to visit bars in legal times. The supply of these pubs was controlled mainly by gangsters. The best known was the notorious Al Capone (1899-1947). Only with Prohibition, the Sicilian mafia became the dominant power in the US underworld. Bribery and intimidation of politicians, police and judicial witnesses were commonplace occurrences. Gangs fought in broad daylight shootouts for sales markets. Above all, it was the escalating violence that brought more and more citizens against the nonsensical law. The proponents drew the (wrong) conclusion that even harder bans would have to be created, as well as for private consumption of alcohol (which was still permitted).
As a result, there was a total decline in viticulture and wine culture in the US and most winegrowers and wineries were destroyed. Many former wineries have now become pure grape producers. The company Paul Garett focused on the production of grape juice of the historic variety Scuppernong around. This company was the only producer to be able to produce wine immediately after the end of the ban in 1933. The wine consumption doubled, but that did not benefit the American wineries. The knowledge of winemaking had been lost. After Prohibition this also shaped the American wine taste for some decades and led to a loss of quality. Because it was mainly with much less effort to produce Sweet wines manufactured.
Prohibition also plunged the US into a social crisis and even led to constitutional discussions. Because the alcohol ban contradicted the principles enshrined in the Declaration of Independence of each individual's right to "personal liberty". The economic crisis of 1929 then brought a rethink, because the proponents had always maintained that prohibition was economically reasonable. The Democratic Party made abolition one of its main points in the election program for the 1932 elections. The newly elected 32nd US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) said in this regard the legendary phrase "I think now is time for a beer" . In the year 1933 the 18th of the year 1919 was repealed with the 21st amendment of the constitution by the congress, appropriate regulations are left to the individual states. Even today, however, there are still strong forces in the US for prohibition. In 1998, a referendum on alcohol was again introduced by referendum in Chicago. In the state Utah There are the strictest rules regarding alcohol consumption. In many US states, wine is still treated as a drug.
The consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited outside restaurants. Therefore, there is the common practice of packing a bottle with alcohol in a paper bag and drinking it in this form. Do not carry open bottles in the car and transport alcohol in any form exclusively in the boot. For every bottle of wine sold in the US, the following text should be included as a government warning: Women should not consume alcohol during pregnancy due to the potential for harm to the unborn child. Consuming alcoholic beverages interferes with your ability to drive or operate a machine, and can lead to health problems. After Prohibition that became Three-tier system introduced. This requires in the chain of alcohol distribution that producers, wholesalers and retailers must be strictly separated.
The long-lasting and still existing rigorous alcohol prohibition is that in Islam; see below alcohol ban, Other keywords to the topic are allergy. Blood Alcohol Concentration. health. hangover. a headache. intoxication. Satyricon. drinking culture. Vinotherapie and To drink, An interesting website with more information and many pictures of Prohibition in the US is Prohibition - An Interactive History
Barrel destruction: Underwodd & Underwood / Corbis
Car and saying I'm no camel, I want beer: FineArtAmerica.com
Al Capone and St.Valentine's Massacre: Hulton-German Collection / Corbis
Prohibition End: Prohibition - An Interactive History