General term for prohibition or prevention, which may refer to many things. In most cases, however, they were or are stimulants such as drugs, alcohol. tobacco or similar affected. As a rule, this includes a ban (in various forms) on the manufacture, importation, exportation, transport, purchase, possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages from social, religious, moral, ethical or health Reasons understood. Such a ban was in the past on time again and again for individual stimulants or drinks such. B. absinthe valid. The longest existing prohibition is the religiously founded in the Koran, rigorous Islamic alcohol ban, But in many other countries and cultures there have been similar bans again and again. This was an enormous encroachment on the habits of the countries concerned, since drinking since earliest human history is an elementary component of the drinking culture,
In Canada there was a prohibition from 1916 to 1927, but as an exception wine was excluded from this alcohol ban. Other alcohol bans existed, for example, from 1919 to 1933 in Finland and from 1900 to 1933 in Ireland. Prohibitive measures with severe restrictions on viticulture also existed in Chile from 1938 to the 1970s. In Sweden, the sale of alcohol is still prohibitively regulated and burdened with high taxes. In New Zealand, Prohibition is still plebiscite today. Similarly, smoking restrictions in the United States since the 1990s, and later in Europe, are also to a certain extent called prohibitive measures.
The most significant alcohol prohibition, which for 13 years from 1920 to 1933 in the United States was valid, was adopted in 1919 by the US Congress against a twofold, unsuccessful veto by President Thomas W. Wilson (1856-1924) as an 18th amendment. In the "National Prohibition Act" (also named after the Senator Volstead Act) it was defined that as "intoxicating drink" all drinks with more than 0.5% alcohol content These laws have been applied to all existing prohibition laws. So, besides schnapps and wine, that was natural as well beer affected. Of the many thousands of breweries before Prohibition, after 1933 only the big ones survived Near Beer held above water.
Further tightening of the ban on alcohol was then in the years 1921 and 1929. Prohibition in the US but had a long history, because already in 1851 was banned in the state of Maine alcohol. For the time being in many of the US states only excessive consumption or alcohol abuse was fought. Especially the two Temperance organizations "Women's Christian Temperance Union" (founded 1874) and "Anti-Saloon League" (founded 1895) first campaigned for a restricted and then more and more for a rigorous alcoholic ban. As a counter-movement, the "anti-temperance societies" formed with especially followers of the Baptists. These continued to regard alcohol as a gift from God.
Especially the "Anti-Saloon League" was run very professionally by the lawyer Wayne B. Wheeler (1869-1927), who was very good at raising funds and financiers. The multiple millionaire and owner of the Standard Oil Company John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), with a speech by Wheeler, donated $ 5,000. Through skillful lobbying, the ASL achieved that virtually no politician could afford not to commit to the League's goals (whether they were convinced of that is another matter). The success was that prior to the entry into force of Prohibition on 16 January 1920, previously in 33 of the then 48 US states alcohol, but to varying extents, was prohibited by law. The ban was actually ratified by many federal states only during the First World War, because this was dependent on referendums (so-called "Local Options"). Taking into account the complicated legal situation in the individual states, more than half of the Americans were against alcohol prohibition when the war broke out in 1914.
The First World War supported the operation of the alcohol opponents, when the United States entered the war on the side of the Entente against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Because most breweries in the US were operated by German or Austrian emigrants (for example Anheuser-Busch). The viticulture was above all a domain of Italians and whiskey was drunk in saloons by Irish and Polish-born workers. These were all mostly Catholic, while the Anglo-Saxon power elite of the United States was traditionally Protestant. The anti-alcohol campaign was primarily the work of Protestant fundamentalists. In particular, they described the German brewery owners as "traitors" or the cause of the alcohol problem and unleashed a nationalist campaign. Even the automobile industrialist Henry Ford I (1863-1947) supported the efforts, perhaps less for moral reasons, but because he did not want to tolerate inferior work performance of his workers by alcohol deterioration. Any Ford worker who only smelled of beer was immediately dismissed without mercy. The strict prohibition of alcohol was regularly strictly controlled by a company security guard, also unexpectedly in workers' residences.
Finally, a ban on the sale, manufacture, import and transport of alcoholic beverages was introduced. In this regard, even the constitution was changed by the 18th Amendment. It was ratified on 16 January 1919 and came into force on 16 January 1920 (and then repealed in 1933 by the 21st Amendment). Incidentally, the introduction of prohibition against alcohol ran parallel to the introduction of women's suffrage. As offense, only the sale was considered, not the mere consumption. The demand for alcohol did not end with the ban, rather the opposite. As a result, the illegal business of production and distribution was excessively developed by criminal, well-organized elements. Ultimately, this led to a frightening increase in crime. The shot went backwards, because instead of eradicating the abuse, led by the advocates designated "noble experiment" led to uncontrolled escalating black market.
But prohibition prevented nobody from drinking. She just replaced good beer and good wine with bad, even harmful schnapps. There were numerous poisonings methanol (Wood spirit) and rotgut alcohol because liquor was produced under often adventurous conditions mostly in the dark night; therefore, the product was z. As aptly referred to as "Moonlight Whiskey" (the picture on the left shows such a "black distillery"). Legally regulated exceptions were religious ceremonies. This was also exploited, because the need for altar wine Suddenly rose to a tremendous and priests became wine sellers. In addition, in the land of countless free churches everyone could found a church. Likewise, wine could be used as a spice for food or for other applications. Another loophole was that wine could be prescribed as a remedy (a recipe is shown in the lower right). Many doctors were ready, "medical champagne To prescribe and in every drugstore you could buy medical wine. Certain alcoholics such as the popular in the US gastric bitter Underberg were excluded from the ban.
There were also very original ideas for circumventing the ban without violating the law. So a company made raisin cake and "warned" in the instructions: "Do not put the cake in the filled tub, otherwise it inevitably begins to ferment and it will be wine" . Hundreds of thousands of Americans created their "house wine" through this clever and clever marketing in exactly the same way during the prohibition period. Also called "Grape Bricks" of concentrated grape juice were produced, on whose package the warning was written: "Do not add any yeast, otherwise the contents will ferment" . Another possibility was to buy grapes, because it was allowed by law "non-intoxicating fruit and fruit juices are made." Many Americans became hobby masters. Especially popular was the French new breed Alicante Henri Bouschet, which was planted on a large scale.
Already from the first year of prohibition a lot of new, illegal pubs were created. One phenomenon was that a large proportion of the guests were women who were forbidden to visit bars in legal times. The supply of these pubs was controlled mainly by gangsters. The best known was the notorious Al Capone (1899-1947). Only with Prohibition did the Sicilian mafia become the dominant power in the US underworld. Bribery and intimidation of politicians, police officers and judicial witnesses were everyday occurrences. Gangs were in broad daylight shootouts for markets. It was, above all, the escalating violence that brought more and more citizens against the nonsensical law. The proponents drew the (wrong) conclusion that even harder prohibitions, as well as for private consumption of alcohol (which was still allowed) would have to create.
As a result, there was a total decline in viticulture and wine culture in the US and most winegrowers and wineries were destroyed. Many former wineries have now become pure grape producers. The company Paul Garett focused on the production of grape juice of the historic variety Scuppernong around. This company was the only producer to be able to produce wine immediately after the end of the ban. The wine consumption doubled, but that did not benefit the American wineries. The knowledge of winemaking had been lost. After Prohibition, this influenced the taste of American wine for several decades and led to a loss of quality. Because it was mainly with much less effort to produce Sweet wines manufactured.
Prohibition also plunged the US into a social crisis and even led to constitutional discussions. Because the prohibition of alcohol contradicted the enshrined in the Declaration of Independence principles of the right of each individual on "personal liberty". The economic crisis in 1929 then brought a rethink, because the advocates had always maintained that prohibition was economically reasonable. The Democratic Party made the lifting of the 1932 elections one of its key points in the election program. Finally, in 1933, the 21st amendment to the constitution was repealed by the Congress of the 18th of 1919, with the corresponding regulations being left to the individual states. Even today, there are strong forces in the US for prohibition. In 1998, 14 municipalities in Chicago re-introduced by referendum a ban on alcohol. In the state Utah There are the strictest rules regarding alcohol consumption. In many US states, wine is still treated as a drug.
The consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited outside restaurants. Therefore, there is the common practice of packing a bottle of alcohol in a paper bag. Do not carry open bottles in the car and transport alcohol in any form exclusively in the boot. For every bottle of wine sold in the US, the following text should be included as a government warning: Women should not consume alcohol during pregnancy due to the potential for harm to the unborn child. Consuming alcoholic beverages interferes with your ability to drive or operate a machine, and can lead to health problems. After Prohibition that became Three-tier system introduced. This requires in the chain of alcohol distribution that producers, wholesalers and retailers must be strictly separated. As already mentioned, the long-lasting and until today existing rigorous alcohol prohibition is that in Islam; see below alcohol ban,