The last decision on the quality A wine is made by the consumer and, despite all scientifically sound analysis methods, is a mixture of not only objective, but to a large extent subjective impressions. Whether a wine "tastes" also depends on physiological preferences or dislikes (someone does not like red wine, because he may have bad experiences due to high histamine levels made), the cultural background of the consumer and the personal experiences. Although experiences are strictly subjective, but on the other hand an objective criterion (in acid-stressed Crying someone gets heartburn, so that a wine has poor quality).
The chemist describes by objective analyzes how the wine is made, the consumer or wine critic Subjectively describes how it tastes. Ultimately, the saying must be accepted: De gustibus non est disputandum (You can not argue about taste) . A qualitative wine review in the form of a grading and textual description is determined by professional tastings. There are already attempts to use the "tastable" quality Glycosyl-glucose assay determine.
The wine quality is through origin (Origin), methods of Weingarten Care (Vineyard), as well as kind of winemaking (Cellar) influenced. The habit of classifying wines into quality classes already existed in the antiquity, where the origin of the grapes has always played a major role in the assessment. Beginning in the 1970s, a source-based system was introduced in many countries. In the 1990s, the EU became a multi-level quality system with stages table wine (but see there), table wine. country wine and quality wine (or QbA = quality wine of specific production areas), which was valid until July 2009. In some countries there were also intermediate stages or special designations such as in Germany and Austria Prädikatswein, In the states of the European Union and partly in the New world was or is still a mostly multi-leveled one Quality Wine Scheme valid with different names.
In August 2009, an extensively amended EU wine market regulation came into force which, among other things, brought about major changes in the quality levels and designations. The origin protection system of the common food law was also adopted for the wine and the criterion origin (Origin) given great importance. The new system now distinguishes between "wine without geographical indication" and "wine with geographical indication". Thus, the model of the French appellation system existing quality philosophy of the "Roman wine law", which is based on wine, but also in food and agricultural products has always been based on the origin. In this way, the quality hierarchies, which in many countries are partly defined by the state and sometimes incompatible with each other, are to be replaced, the new levels associated with clear profiles and made intelligible to the consumer.
Under a transitional period, wines marketed under the "old system" before 31 December 2010 may continue to be marketed until stocks are exhausted. However, this should not confuse the Member States' obligation to send the technical specifications for all protected names of origin to the Commission by the end of 2011 at the latest, since otherwise international protection for such origin would have expired. The new names:
A special feature is the possible processing of grapes from one EU member state into another EU member state. For example, this could be "wine obtained in Austria from grapes harvested in Italy". Wines from third countries are labeled with the name of the third country, for example "wine from Chile". A blend of wines from several third countries, such as a Chilean wine blended with an Australian wine, is called "blending of wines outside the European Community" or "blend of Chilean and Australian wines".
These are simply called "wine"; the term table wine is no longer allowed. At this stage, a distinction is made between 'wine' (without variety and / or vintage) and 'wine with variety and / or vintage'. As part of the negotiations, Germany and Austria have spoken out against the possibility of referring to wine without its nearer origin as the member state with grape variety (s) and vintage. However, they were overruled by the majority, arguing for equality of opportunity with wine exports from third countries such as Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. As a compromise, however, it was stipulated that the Member States must lay down stricter requirements and controls for these wines than for wines without grape variety and vintage indications.
The new quality category "wine" aims to better position larger quantities of simpler wine with no specific origin but with grape variety information on the (world) market, just like the countries in Overseas had practiced for a long time. Before the new wine market regulations within the EU, the indication of the grape varieties in the category "table wine" was prohibited. First and foremost, this category has therefore been deliberately degraded in order to differentiate the origin (land and quality) wines positively. The idea was to make the simpler wines more suitable for the market in order to avoid the expensive elimination of wine Excess production get away.
Obligatory is the indication of origin in the form of the member state (eg wine from Germany or product from Austria), in which the grapes were harvested and processed into wine. If it is a wine made from grapes from different Member States, the indication "Wine from the European Community" (or analogously) must be given. This is bez. "Wines without geographical indication" confusing, but "Member State" or "European Community" are not considered "geographical indication" or "designation of origin". Furthermore, the must bottler be specified. On the other hand, information on the operation such as castle, viticulture or winery, as well as production methods such as "fermented in the barrel" or "expanded in the barrel" are prohibited.
These wines correspond mutatis mutandis to the previous one table wine, It is seen as a low quality market regulation product. Therefore, he may also to a degree that does not affect the taste wine faults such as a light one sulfurous off respectively. For this lowest level, there are no maximum yield limits, as well as no cultivation and production rules, which allows great scope.
These wines with no indication of source of origin than the member state must be free of defects in appearance, smell and taste, as well as in terms of grape variety varietal respectively. There is a country-specific maximum yield regulation. Certain grape varieties or grape variety designations that have a protected geographical indication or a protected designation of origin as name components and thus could be misleading for the consumer are excluded. For example, white, gray and blue burgundy indicates Burgundy and is therefore banned in Germany and Austria. It is up to the Member States to define these grape varieties or grape variety names (see Quality wine-grape varieties ).
As for the quality wines, there are, as in the past, two stages, which correspond to the earlier land and quality wines (plus the predicate wines). The smaller the area of origin, the higher are the wine-related requirements earnings and alcohol content, All protected indications of origin must be requested by the member states and are in one EU Regulation listed.
Member States are authorized to retain all previous designations as traditional terms. Within the two stages, as in the past, country-specific gradations, such as B. give quality wine and Prädikatswein. In order to increase competitiveness vis-à-vis non-member countries, unlike in the past, these wines may now not be bottled as in the past, but also in other containers such as Bag-in-Boxes or Tetra pack be bottled.
The two terms PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) and PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) are nothing new, by the way, but have been used for a long time for the marking of geographical and originated food.
These wines correspond to that country wine, They usually come from larger areas such as region or state. Obligatory is the indication of the member state and the winegrowing region as indication of source on label, The term "geographical indication" means the name of a region, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, a country used to designate a wine with the following requirements:
He has a certain goodness, a certain reputation, or other qualities which result from this geographical origin; at least 85% of the grapes come exclusively from or are produced in this geographical area; as well as he was derived from grape varieties that belong to the species Vitis vinifera or one crossing between varieties of Vitis vinifera and another variety of the genus Vitis (for example, Asian Vitis amurensis or American Vitis labrusca ) counting. The specifications are less strict and extensive than in the case of wine PDO The designations in the national languages:
These wines correspond to the earlier stages quality wine and Prädikatswein, They are usually from smaller areas such as community (place), Single Location and cadastral location (Germany) or location or Riede (Austria). The "designation of origin" is the name of a region, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, a country used to designate a wine with the following requirements:
It owes its goodness or qualities predominantly or exclusively to geographical conditions, including natural and human influences; the grapes originate exclusively or are produced in this geographical area; as well as from grape varieties of the species Vitis vinifera won (see also under Quality wine-grape varieties ).
For production, country-specific criteria regarding vineyard care apply, among others training system, Planting and pruning; Restriction of the yield; Minimum values for the Mostgewicht the grapes; Type of vintage; Specifications regarding the vinification like enrich. Spriten. leavening. sweetening and type or duration of the expansion; as well as specifications regarding alcohol content. colour. total extract. taste. residual sugar and acidity of the wine. The wines must be before marketing analytical (chemical / physical) and sensory (Tasting) tests are subjected. See under Official test number (Germany) and State test number (Austria). The names in the national languages:
The names of the winegrowing areas of all EU Member States have been automatically registered as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Land of Protected Lands as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) in the EU Register, are therefore recognized and protected under EU law, thus covering the EU Requirements. These are, for example, the German wine-growing regions, the Austrian wine-growing regions, the French AOC (now AOP), the Spanish DO / DOCA (now DOP) and the Italian DOC / DOCG (now DOP). Therefore, they can and will of course continue to be listed on the bottle label. However, there are country-specific regulations on the use of the new designations.
The terms Landwein, Qualitätswein and Prädikatswein (with all types of wine) are no longer uniform EU quality grades, but have been preserved only as "traditional claims". This is especially true for Austria and Germany, but also others. In Austria the new terms PGI and PDO are prohibited until further notice. In Germany this was only the case until the end of 2011. Alternatively, the new terms may be added here, but not in the abbreviated form. In France. Greece. Italy. Portugal and Spain Alternatively, the old designations are permissible.
Independent or in addition to the EU regulation, there are still additional classification systems in some countries. That's for example in France Bordeaux Classification ( Graves. Saint-Emilion. Sauterne ) and Burgundy classification, as well as in Germany the VDP classification, See also a complete listing of the many classification systems below Grand Cru,
All works, techniques and measures during the growth cycle in the vineyard one finds under Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,