In January 1788, an English ship with 300 convicts and security personnel landed on the southeastern coast of Australia in the harbor of Sydney, which was founded in the same year. Commander was Captain Arthur Phillip (1738-1814), who was also the first governor of the future state of New South Wales. He stated in writing that in such a favorable climate viticulture can be driven to any desired degree of perfection . It was immediately started with the planting of the brought vines (where today is Farm Cove). But it would take 200 years for Australian winegrowing to establish itself. The first decades became so excessive rum drunk that the camp was called "Rum Corps".
As a pioneer and even "father of Australian viticulture" is the Scot James Busby (1802-1871) who had acquired knowledge of wine in France and emigrated to Australia. In 1825 he founded North of Sydney in Hunter Valley a farm - in one of today's best Australian wine regions. From a trip to Europe, he brought in 1833 with hundreds of grape seedlings, including was the Syrah which later became famous as Shiraz in Australia. Busby published writings and books on vines, viticulture and winemaking. His instructions used Silesian immigrants from 1841 when creating vineyards.
In 1845, the English physician Dr. Christopher Penfold his winery in Barossa Valley that under Penfolds still exists today. A second pioneer in this area was the German Joseph Ernest Seppelt (1813-1868) in 1851 with his winery Seppeltfield. John Riddoch (1827-1901) put the first vineyards in the famous area in the early 1890s Coonawarra and triggered a boom there. Equally important was Thomas Hardy who died in the year 1853 McLaren Vale founded a winery. An important role was also played by Swiss artists such as Hubert de Castella (1825-1907), who cultivated wine in the Yarra Valley justified. In 1919, a viticulture research institute was founded in Merbein (Sunraysia, Victoria), which then went to the research institute in 1927 CSIRO was affiliated.
Two more important ones Wine-producing institutions are these AWRI and the Charles Sturt University, For over 100 years, mainly heavy, alcohol-rich sweet wines were produced in Australia, which were marketed as "Australian Port". From the early 1960s was initially a change to fresh white wines. Significantly involved in this development was the well-known wine author and winemaker Len Evans (1930-2006). A milestone was that of the legendary butler Max Schubert (1915-1994) in 1959 created "Grange Hermitage", a red wine produced in Bordeaux style of the winery Penfolds, This was then from the mid-1960s, the initial point for the production of excellent red wines, especially from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Shiraz, which are both sorted or marketed as cuvées. Another pioneer was the 1961 immigrated from Germany Wolfgang Blass (* 1934).
Australia became a true wine drink nation within just one generation. Journalists like Len Evans, James Halliday, Campbell Mattinson and Jeremy Oliver through books, publications and wine guide contributed. In 2012, the vineyard covered 162,000 hectares, of which 12.259 million hectoliters of wine were produced. There was a massive growth of 60%, since in 2000 it was 106,000 hectares. About 80% is accounted for by multinationals. Australian oenologists are considered Flying winemakers sought after worldwide.
Most will be varietals (Varietal wines) produced. About 70% of the production is easier in Bag-in-Boxes bottled mass wine, There are also large quantities table grapes and raisins generated. For the most part, international varieties are grown. At the bottom of the table are seven Australian new varieties cited that were created for the specific Australian climate / soil conditions. About 40% are white wine varieties and 60% red wines. The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson...