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raisin (GB)
raisin sec (F)
uva passa (I)
pasa (ES)
passa (PO)
rozijn (N)

Term for extremely dried grape berries, which is derived from the old French term "Roisin" (grape berry). A distinction is made between Zibeben (large berries with seeds and a thick skin), currants (small, dark, seedless Berries) and sultanas (light, seedless berries). The names also result from the grape varieties that are often used korinthiaki. Muscat d'Alexandrie (Cibebe) and Sultana, Raisins are one of the oldest preserved foods in humans. Especially during campaigns, raisins were very popular with many Arab and Asian peoples as nutritious and long-lasting provisions for the soldiers. The general Hannibal (247-183 BC) from Carthage allegedly used his troops to supply provisions for his troops on his journey to Rome across the Alps. Writings found in Egypt prove the production of raisins for at least 3,000 BC and also in the Bible they are often mentioned. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC) reports that the black currants are seedless.

Raisins - three different servings of raisins

The most important prerequisites for production are a suitable one climate with high temperatures, long sunshine, low rainfall and lower humidity, First and foremost, the grape varieties Sultana (Sultanina, Thompson Seedless, Kishmish), korinthiaki (Black Corinth, Zante Currant) and Muscat d'Alexandrie used. Are a requirement seedless Berries, that's why these are mostly table grapes,

After harvesting, the grapes are laid out outdoors on wooden frames or cement or clay slabs. After about two weeks they will be turned. In some cases, they are also dipped in suitable solutions (vegetable oil and potash) to force drying. In ancient times, a mixture of wood ash and olive oil was used for this. In Australia and California a special technique is used, in which the grapes are cut at the base, remain on the stick until they dry out and are sprayed with a dry emulsion (see picture below). High quality raisins have a maximum of 13% moisture, a uniform color (from golden brown to purple brown) and size and must be completely free of dirt.

Raisins - bunch of grapes with dried berries

The grapes 60% for wine, the remaining 40% for wine table grapes (Grapes), raisins and other products such as grape juice used. The biggest raisin producers are (in that order) United States (especially California ), the Turkey. Greece. Australia. Iran and Afghanistan, The worldwide amount is about one million tons annually. See also under raisin wine and Wine production volumes,

Left: By Håkan Stigson from Pixabay
Middle and right image: By Emilian Robert Vicol from Pixabay
Grape: By Uschi Dugulin from Pixabay

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