Description (span. Rancio = rancid ) for wines from hot wine-growing regions, which one oxidative expansion have been subjected to simultaneous exposure to heat. However, the temperature is lower than in the related process of maderisation, so that the notes of nuts and rancid butter predominate in the rancio, while in the Madeira a caramel dominated. In common parlance, rancio is also used for the typical wine taste of candied fruit, nuts and rancid butter. The rancioton arises through oxidation of fatty acids and formation of butyric, Other wines in the rancio style are Banyuls. Fondillón. Maury. Rasteau and Rivesaltes, Also matured in barrel for a long time cognacs take on a rancio tone (rancio charentais). In the French Vin Jaune and Italian Vin Santo the term rancio is sometimes used incorrectly. Related terms are firn. madeirisiert. oxidized. rahn and rancid,
In the Spanish region Catalonia Rancio is a specialty that is produced in numerous variations from dry to sweet. Here mainly white wines are oxidatively expanded through targeted exposure to oxygen through only loosely closed fermentation tank openings. The wine is fortified to 18 to 19% alcohol by volume and then matured in oak barrels or pear-shaped glass balloons (bombonas), whereby the containers are often deliberately exposed to the heat or extreme temperature fluctuations in warehouses that are hot during the day and cool at night. The high alcohol content prevents the development of Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria). After a ripening period of several years, a rancio with Mistela (fortified must) or arrope (Grape juice concentrate) blended to set the desired level of candy.