Designation (Spanish rancio = rancid ) for wines from hot winegrowing areas, the one oxidative expansion subjected to simultaneous exposure to heat. However, the temperature is lower than in the related process of maderisation, so at the Rancio rather the notes of nuts and rancid butter outweigh, while the Madeira a caramel dominated. In common usage, Rancio is also used for the typical wine taste of candied fruits, nuts and rancid butter. The Rancioton arises through oxidation of fatty acids and formation of butyric, Other Rancio-style wines are Banyuls. Fondillón. Maury. Rasteau and Rivesaltes, Also very long matured in barrel cognacs assume a Rancio tone (Rancio charentais). At the French Vin Jaune and at the Italian Vin Santo The term rancio is sometimes misused. Related terms are firn. madeirisiert. oxidized. rahn and rancid,
In the Spanish region Catalonia Rancio is a specialty that is produced in many varieties from dry to sweet. Here mainly white wines are oxidatively expanded by targeted exposure to oxygen by only loosely sealed fermenter openings. The wine is then spiked to 18 to 19% alcohol by volume and matured in oak barrels or pear-shaped glass balloons (bombonas), often intentionally exposed to heat or extreme temperature fluctuations in daytime hot and cold storage warehouses. The high alcohol content prevents a development of Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria). After a maturity of several years, a Rancio will be with Mistela (pressed must) or arrope (Grape juice concentrate) blended to set the desired degree of sweetness.