Name for the pulpy mass of grape skins, pulp, seeds and possibly, if not previously stemming took place, also stalks after the Press, Other names are Bälisch (Moselle), Lauer, Leier, Lor (c) ke, Lur (c) ke, and Trasch Trasch (Switzerland). Sometimes a distinction is made in the name: pomace = pressing residue (white wine), grains = fermentation residue (red wine). The at the maceration a red wine's floating ingredients are called marc, This is done by machine or manually during the fermentation with the must / wine in intensive contact (see under pigeage = Submission).
100 liters of mash produce about 25 kilograms of wet pomace. It consists of about 75% shells and 25% cores. Pips are also often organic fertilization used in the vineyard and red wine pomace becomes the food coloring oenocyanin won. In most wine-growing countries will from pomace fire distilled. Depending on whether in the pomace only sugar, alcohol and still unggorener sugar or only more alcohol are included, the pomace is called pure, semi-fermented or durchgegoren. As a rule, pure white pomace is produced from white grape varieties, the half-fermented from mixed white and red grapes, the through-fermented from red grapes. In the white wine preparation is still a large amount of undigested sugar contained in the press residues. Before the distillation Therefore, a fermentation of the pomace must first take place.
The residues in the red wine preparation also contain dead yeast cells and alcohol. The pomace mass can therefore be distilled directly in special firing equipment, which is mandatory for example in Italian Grappa. But there are also products where water is added to the pomace, the finished fermented base wine is separated from the residues and then distilled. The quality of the pomace also depends on the liquid it still contains. Only lightly pressed pomace usually gives better qualities.
In Germany and Austria the spirit (as the residues themselves) as pomace or as pomace brand called (marc or brandy is not allowed). It is either bottled immediately after distilling or stored for a while in tanks and / or matured in a wooden barrel. That too flavoring with herbs, spices and fruits is practiced. Pork brandies in other countries are called, for example, Bagaceira (Portugal), grappa (Italy), Marc (France), Orujo (Spain), pálinka (Hungary), Tsipouro (Greece) and Zivania (Cyprus). The formerly very popular Piquette is rarely produced for self-consumption today.
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,