Term for the pulpy mass of grape skins, pulp, seeds and, if necessary, if none stemming also stems after Press, Other names include Bälisch (Mosel), Lauer, Leier, Lor (c) ke, Lur (c) ke, Trebern, Tröber and Trasch / Träsch (Switzerland). Sometimes a distinction is made in the name: pomace = pressing residue (white wine), spent grains = fermentation residue (red wine). The at the maceration Components of a red wine floating above are called marc, This is brought in by machine or manually during the fermentation in intensive contact with the must / wine (see under pigeage = Undermine).
About 100 pounds of wet pomace is produced from 100 liters of mash. It consists of about 75% shells and 25% seeds. Pomace often also becomes organic fertilization used in the vineyard and red wine pomace becomes the food coloring oenocyanin won. The grape seeds of the pomace occasionally become Grapeseed oil - generation used. In most wine-growing countries, pomace becomes a fire distilled. Depending on whether there is only sugar in the pomace, alcohol and even less fermented sugar or only contains more alcohol, the pomace is called natural, semi-fermented or fully fermented. As a rule, naturally pure pomace is made from white grape varieties, the semi-fermented from mixed white and red grapes, the fully fermented from red grapes. When preparing white wine, the press residues still contain a large amount of unfermented sugar. Before the distillation the marc must therefore first be fermented.
The residues from the red wine preparation also contain dead yeast cells and alcohol. The pomace mass can therefore be distilled directly in special stills, which is mandatory, for example, for Italian grappa. But there are also products where water is added to the pomace, the fermented base wine is separated from the residues and only then distilled. The quality of the pomace also depends on the liquid that it still contains. Only lightly pressed pomace usually gives better qualities.
In Germany and Austria the spirit (like the residues themselves) referred to as pomace or pomace brandy (grains or grape brandy is not permitted). It is either bottled immediately after distillation or stored in tanks for a while and / or left to mature in wooden barrels. That too flavoring with herbs, spices and fruits is practiced. Pomace fires in other countries are called Bagaceira (Portugal), grappa (Italy), Marc (France), Orujo (Spain), pálinka (Hungary), Tsipouro (Greece) and Zivania (Cyprus). The previously very popular Piquette is now rarely produced for personal consumption.
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,