in the taxonomic The system will be the plant of the subclass Rosidae (rose plants), the order Vitales (grapevine-like), the family Vitaceae (vine plants) and the genus Vitis, the vines assigned (see under Vines systematics ). It is a creeper that originally climbed up on trees. The plant can reach huge dimensions and in extreme cases can live up to 300 years. The morphology is divided into the three main organs roots, stem axis (stem with the shoots) and leaves, The entire root system is underground, most of it at a depth of 20 to 50 centimeters. This will anchor the vine in the ground and with everything necessary such as water and nutrients provided.
In many countries the New world is an artificial one irrigation usual in the EU this is subject to authorization. At today through the finishing The usual functions of the grafting are the root functions through the document Fulfills. The ideal ground in the vineyard has a balanced relationship between Water storage capacity and water discharge, so that at best the roots are forced to spread far and deep in the earth. The roots of the feet can penetrate to a depth of 15 meters in loose soil. The side roots spread mainly in the upper layers and absorb water and nutrients through the thin fiber roots (root hairs). The dew roots (also day or aerial roots) spread just below the surface of the earth.
The so-called "old" wood lies above the surface of the earth finishing grafted scion formed trunk and the branches branching from it Kordone (Leg). At the trunk (also under the ground) can look out adventitious the water shoots (undesirable secondary drives) form. The two-year-old rods and cones stand on the thighs Nodien in the leaf axil the eyes (Axillary buds) are formed. From the winter eyes of the "previous year's" wood, new green summer shoots will form next spring, on which those for the photosynthesis indispensable leaves form. From the summer buds in the leaf axils can look sideways epicormic shoot develop with miser grapes. The winter buds, which are also in the leaf axes from May to July, mature and become woody by the end of October. As frost-hardy "winter eyes" they dwell out of the winter until expulsion in the spring of the following year.
Winter eyes standing at the base of the trunk often only develop green fruitless ones shoots with up to 40 leaves, while fruit-bearing shoots with inflorescences (appearances) arise from the second to the fifth eye, from which after the blossom the grapes ripen. Fruit-bearing rods only emerge from the buds of the “two-year-old” wood, so that the wintry one pruning and the number of eyes left on the shoot earnings of the next year. The course of growth during the year is crucial for the formation of inflorescences next year growth cycle related to the climate and weather in the previous year, that means the earnings (Amount of grapes) was influenced in part by the number and size of the notes and the number of individual flowers (from which the berries are made) in the previous year. Opposite to the leaves, the form at the node tendrils (Fastening members).
Depending on the variety, it takes three to six years before the first one is planted earnings, the Virgin Reading, is possible. The vine is usually used for 30 to 40 years for viticulture and then cleared. However, it can get much older, some sticks over 200 years old have mostly been preserved as house sticks on historic buildings. The oldest Grape vine still in production is in the garden of the Tudor Palace "Hampton Court Palace" near London, it was planted in 1769. The quality of the wine first increases with age. However, vines can also age, so that a rejuvenation cut should be made after a few decades. Since the yield slowly decreases with increasing age, old vines are now mostly only from top quality wineries for special ones vintages used.
The generally positive criteria for the suitability of a region for viticulture are called Weinbauwürdigkeit designated. The vine is very adaptable and adapts to extreme environmental conditions such as heat, drought or frost on. It is viable up to minus 18 ° C, especially frost-hardy grape varieties even have one resistance down to minus 30 ° C. The ideal daytime temperature is with a good supply of nutrients and water, and more optimal exposition (at best in hillside ) between 23 and 25 ° C. Sunny days alternating with cooler nights are an advantage. Even the fungal infestation with Botrytis cinerea (Gray mold) is used for the production of special wines from noble rot berries.
Vines are planted in around 100 of the approximately 200 countries in the world today. Whether a vine in a particular climate thrives depends, among other things, on the vine from. The best climatic conditions are in the so-called vines belts (40th to 50th north and 30th to 40th south latitude) at 100 to 400 meters above sea level, although there are also vineyards outside these areas. For example, there are very exposed ones in the tropics near the equator, as well as the northernmost vineyards around the 60th to 62nd latitude and the southernmost vineyards of the world on the New Zealand South Island at the 45th parallel. The highest vineyards the world are in Salta (Argentina) at an incredible 3,111 meters above sea level. From the 1980s, the global changes are due to the climate Change noticeable to a great extent.
The Varieties determination is detailed under DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid and) and molecular Genetics, the annual growth with the development sections below growth cycle, the various vineyard soils with an impact on yield and quality soil type that take numerous pests and diseases Vine enemies, the family tree with the grape species below Vines systematics, as well as the ancestors of the cultivated vine varieties under Wild vines described. Complete lists of all relevant keywords on the complex subject area are among the keywords grapevine and vineyards contain.
Vine drawings: taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger,
Viticulture, ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH
Map: Der Winzer 1 - Weinbau, Ulmer Verlag 2019, 4th edition