in the taxonomic System is the plant of the subclass Rosidae (rose plants), the order Vitales (grapevines), the family Vitaceae (vine plants) and the genus Vitis, the vines assigned (see under Vines systematics ). It is a creeper that originally climbed up trees. The plant can reach gigantic proportions and in extreme cases can reach more than 300 years old. The morphology is divided into the three main organs roots, stem axis (stem with the shoots) and leaves, The entire root system is underground, most of it at a depth of 20 to 50 centimeters. Thus, the vine is anchored in the ground and with everything necessary like water and nutrients provided.
In many countries the New world is an artificial one irrigation usual, in the EU this is subject to permission. At the today by the finishing usual form of the Pfropfreben become the root functions by the document Fulfills. The ideal ground in the vineyard has a balance between Water storage capacity and water discharge so that at best the roots are forced to spread far and deep in the earth. In loose ground, the tarsal roots can penetrate up to 15 meters depth. The lateral roots spread mainly in the upper layers and take on the thin fiber roots (root hair) water and nutrients. The dew roots (also day or aerial roots) spread just below the surface of the earth.
Above the surface of the earth is the so-called "old" wood, which is the one from the finishing grafted scion formed trunk and branching off of it Kordone (Leg). On the trunk (even under the earth) can look out adventitious the water shoots form (undesirable side shoots). On the thighs are the two-year-old rods and cones, on whose Nodien in the Blattachsel the eyes (Axillary buds) are formed. From the winter eyes of the "last year's" wood new green summer shoots will form next spring, on which the for the photosynthesis indispensable leaves form. From the summer buds in the leaf axils can become laterally epicormic shoot develop with miser grapes. The winter buds, which are also planted in the leaf axles from May to July, mature and liven up until the end of October. As a frost-hard "winter eyes" they survive the winter until the winter expulsion in the spring of the following year.
Basal winter eyes often develop only green fruitless shoots with up to 40 leaves, while the second to fifth eye fruit bearing shoots with inflorescences (notes) arise, from which after blossom the grapes ripen. Only from the buds of the "two-year" wood spring-bearing rods spring, so that the wintry pruning and the number of eyes left on the instinct earnings of the next year. Decisive for the formation of inflorescences next year is the growth during the growth cycle related to the climate and the weather in the previous year, that means that the earnings (Grape quantity) was influenced by the number and size of the batches and the number of the single blossoms (from which the berries arise) partly already in the previous year. Opposite to the leaves form at the node tendrils (Fastening members).
Depending on the variety, it takes three to six years, until after a new planting the first earnings, the Virgin Reading, is possible. The vine is used today usually 30 to 40 years for viticulture and then cleared. But he can get much older, some over 200 -year-old sticks have mostly been preserved as housekeeping at historic buildings. The oldest still under yield standing grapevine is in the garden of the Tudor Palace "Hampton Court Palace" near London, it was planted in 1769. With age, the wine quality first increases. However, vines can also over age, so that after a few decades, a rejuvenation cut should be made. As yields slowly decrease with age, old vines are nowadays only used by top quality wineries for special purposes vintages used.
The generally positive criteria for the suitability of a region for viticulture are considered as Weinbauwürdigkeit designated. The vine is very adaptable and can withstand extreme environmental conditions such as heat, drought or frost on. It is viable to minus 18 ° C, specially frost hardy cultivated varieties even have one resistance to minus 30 ° C. The ideal temperature during the day is good supply of nutrients and water, as well as optimal exposition (at best in hillside ) between 23 and 25 ° C. Sunny days alternating with cooler nights are an advantage. Even the fungal infection with Botrytis cinerea (Gray mold) is used for the production of special wines from noble rot berries.
In around 100 of the approximately 200 countries around the world, vines are planted today. Whether a vine in a particular climate depends, among other things, on the vine from. The best climatic conditions exist in the so-called vines belts (40th to 50th north and 30th to 40th south latitude) at 100 to 400 meters above sea level, although there are also vineyards outside these areas. For example, there are very exposed in the tropics near the equator, as well as the northernmost vineyards around the 60th to 62nd latitude and the southernmost vineyards the world on the New Zealand South Island at the 45th parallel. The highest vineyards the world are in Salta (Argentina) at an incredible 3,111 meters above sea level. From the 1980s, the global changes are due to the climate Change noticeable to a large extent.
The Varieties determination is detailed below DNA (Deoxyribonucleinacid and) and molecular Genetics Underlying the annual growth with the development sections growth cycle, the different vineyard soils with effect on yield and quality soil type taking numerous pests and diseases under Vine enemies, the pedigree tree with the vine species below Vines systematics, as well as the ancestors of the cultivated grape varieties under Wild vines described. Complete listings of all relevant keywords for the complex topic are among the keywords grapevine and vineyards contain.
Vineyard drawings: taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger,
Viticulture, ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH