The white grape probably comes from Germany. There are over 150 Synonyms which testify to the high age and worldwide distribution in almost all winegrowing countries. Historically important or still commonly used alphabetically grouped by country are Risling ( Bulgaria ); Edler Riesling, Yellow Riesling, Gräfenberger, Hochheimer, Johannisberger, Kleinriesling, Klingelberger, Rissling, Schlüsseling (?), White Riesling (? Germany ); Raisin du Rhin, Riesling Rhénan ( France ); Riesling Renano Italy ); Rajinski Riesling (former Yugoslavia ); Rizling Rajnski ( Croatia ); Rislinoc ( Moldova ); Rheinriesling, Ritzling (?), White Riesling ( Austria ); Johannisberg, Johannisberg Riesling, Petit Rhin ( Switzerland ); Rizling Rýnsky ( Slovakia ); Renski Rizling ( Slovenia ); Lipka, Ryzlink Rýnský, Starovetski ( Czech Republic ); Beyaz Riesling ( Turkey ); Рислінг, Rislinok ( Ukraine ); Fehér Rajnai, Rajnai Rizling ( Hungary ); Rhine Riesling, White Riesling ( California - United States ).
The Riesling is allowed on reason morphological Similarities do not match the varieties Crouchen. Menu Pineau. Pedro Ximénez. Räuschling or Sauvignonasse be confused. There is no genetic relationship to Riesling (Graševina), whose ancestry (parenthood) is unknown. The prestigious name Riesling has often been misleading and sometimes misused worldwide for the following varieties:
According to the Austrian biologist dr. Ferdinand Regner in 1998 DNA analysis is the Riesling from a probably natural cross between (Vitis vinifera sylvestris x Traminer ) x White Heunisch ( Gouais blanc ) emerged. From the wild grape come the small berries and the frost hardiness from the Traminer the spicy notes and the Heunisch brought late maturity, robustness and acid potential. It should be noted that although Gouais Blanc, but the participation of wild grape and Traminer are not secured. The rare variety Red Riesling is not a precursor, according to DNA analysis, but one mutation of the White Riesling. In Germany there are about 60 approved Clones with quite different characteristics. Due to their excellent qualities, Riesling clones were used for around 200 new varieties used. Especially the three institutes Geilweilerhof (Pfalz), Geisenheim (Rheingau) and vineyard (Württemberg) were active on a large scale.
The most important offspring are Alb de Yaloven. Aris. Arnsburger. Aromriesling. August Riesling. Aurelius. Bacchus. bouquet Riesling. Breidecker. comtessa. Dalkauer. Dalmasso 12-40. diamond Muskat. Danube Riesling. Dr. Deckerrebe. precious nutmeg. Ehrenfelser. Elbriesling. Emerald Riesling. fine nutmeg. fine Riesling. Firnriesling. early Riesling. Goldriesling (1), Grando. Gyöngyrizling. hibernal. Hoelder. Johanniter. Jo Rizling. Kerner. Klosterneuburg 44-8. Kocsis Zsuzsa. Lafayette. Louisette. Manzoni Bianco. Marie Riesling. Merzling. Misket Varnenski. Morava. Müller-Thurgau. Multaner. Muscat de la Republique. Muscat Dore de Semis. nutmeg flower. muscat bouquet. nutmeg scent. Muscat Riesling. Naumburg 5016-37. Negritienok. Noblessa. Noria. Optima. Osiris. Oraniensteiner. Osteiner. Panonia. President Carnot. Primera. principal. Quanbai. Quanyu B. Rabaner. Rieslaner. Ries Lina. Ries liner. Riesling Bulgarsky. Riesling Forte. Riesling Lion. Riesling Magaracha. Romeo. Rotberger. ruling. Sauvignon Cita. Sauvignon Gryn. Sauvignon sary. Scheurebe. Siegfriedrebe. Therona Riesling. Thurling. Witberger and Zähringer,
Probably the Riesling comes from the Rhine Valley, A first mention was made in the middle of the 15th century. In a document from the year 1435 in Rüsselheim (Frankfurt) seems a bill for Riesling vines on. Another document mentions a "sneaking" in Alsace in 1348. Whether it is the Riesling is unclear. The well-known German botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554) writes in his 1546 issue "Kreütter Buch" that "Rissling grows on the Moselle / Rhine and in Wormbs" . The origin is also reclaimed by winemakers of the Austrian Wachau, because there is a documented in the 13th century vineyard called Ritzling gives. Of course, that's no proof.
The variety was probably very common with other Heunisch / Traminer descendants like Elbling. feeder and Räuschling in the Mixed sentence in the vineyard. Only relatively late, from the 19th century on it was planted in pure sentences. An exception was prince abbot of Fulda, who had already cultivated exclusively Riesling in 1716 on the just acquired Johannisberg. But the variety was long disputed. In a document from 1747 it is reported: "In the Rhingau they have: Gutedel and Elbling as the best variety, Heinisch as the middle genus and Rußling as the worst of the grapes." This is also explained by the then customary, officially prescribed, early reading dates. The approximately three hundred year climate of the Little ice age just was not warm enough for a late harvest, because you had to fear early night frosts. The story of Spätlesereiter from 1775 probably made sure that the reading date was shifted from mid / end of September to the beginning of November. With increasing warming from the middle of the 19th century, Riesling has prevailed and today is one of the best in the world Cépages classy, Because of the longevity and finesse Of the wines, he is also called "white Cabernet Sauvignon " designated.
The late-ripening vine is resistant to frost and wrong mildew and only slightly susceptible to powdery mildew and Botrytis, It thrives particularly well in relatively cool cultivation areas over slate and primary rock on sunny steep slopes. The wines usually draw a harmonious taste with high Acid- and extract, but rather moderate alcohol content, as well as diverse, fruity aromas of apples, apricots, grapefruit, passion fruit, peaches, roses and lemons. As part of a wine address they are often called steely. hot-blooded and mineral described. However, it depends on the soil conditions, which are characterized by it. The Riesling is said to have the character of a soil ( terroir ) can express very well. In old age, an almond and also the petrol tone, one of fans valued Aroma, The greenish-yellow colour turns into shimmering gold tone. Riesling wines usually have a potentially extreme durability. Prädikatsweine hold 20, 30, 40 years and longer. A particularly impressive specimen is a 421-year-old Würzburger stone that was still edible (see also under oldest wines ).
As the most common variety in Germany he occupied in 2010 a total of 22,580 hectares. The growing areas with the largest share are Moselle with a third of the total area, as well Rheingau and middle Rhine, The variety is represented in all 13 growing areas. Ideal conditions exist on the Mosel, where, according to many experts, there are the best Rieslings. The meaning is also evident in VDP classification model, The Union Pro Riesling (Mosel) successfully strives to promote the vine. The name Klingelberger is mostly in to bathe in the area Ortenau for special Riesling clones in use and has there special meaning.
There are more cultivated areas in Bulgaria (1,170 ha), England (1 ha), France especially Alsace (3.513 ha), Greece (2 ha), Israel. Italy (446 ha), Kazakhstan (111 ha), Croatia (676 ha), Luxembourg (121 ha), Moldova (1,343 ha), Austria (1,863 ha), Portugal (18 ha), Russia (882 ha), Switzerland (12 ha), Slovakia (605 ha), Slovenia (676 ha), Spain (161 ha), Czech Republic (1,181 ha), Turkey (3 ha), Ukraine (2,702 ha) and Hungary (1,304 ha).
In overseas, there are cultivated areas in Argentina (89 ha), Australia (4,114 ha), Brazil (9 ha), Chile (367 ha), China (437 ha), Japan (11 ha), Canada (871 ha), New Zealand (979 ha), South Africa (211 ha) and Uruguay (15 ha). In the United States This is a total of 4,852 ha in the states California (1,550 ha), Michigan. new York (276 ha), Oregon (314 ha) and Washington (2,558 hours). In San Francisco, California, in 2007, the International Riesling Foundation founded. The variety occupied a total of 49,997 hectares of vineyards in 2010 with an upward trend (in 2000 there were 43,166 hectares). It lies in the worldwide varieties ranking on rank 18.
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)