With its 6,000 years of wine history, Romania is one of the oldest wine-growing countries in Europe. Already the Greek poet Homer mentioned in the 8th century in his Iliad the Thracian wines and the historian Herodotus (482-425 BC) tells of the wine trade of the Greek colonists on the Black Sea coast. German settlers from Saxony revived viticulture in Transylvania in the 12th century, and in the 18th century these were those of Maria Theresa (1717-1780) brought Swabians into the country. The historical landscape Bessarabia, where there has also been 5,000 years of viticulture, was inhabited at the beginning of the 19th century mainly by Romanians. This today too Moldova counting area belonged in the period 1917-1940 to Romania.
In the 1960s, many new vineyards were created. In the communist era, of course, production was state-owned. As a result of the political upheaval, a wave of privatization began in 1990 with many micro-owners. The leading production companies have joined together in a private export sales company. The vineyards in 2012 covered 192,000 hectares of vineyards with falling tendency (in 2000 there were 253,000 hectares). Of these, 3.311 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). About three-quarters are made up of white wines, a quarter on red wines. Romania also has a significant production for table grapes; the main varieties used for this are Afus Ali. Chasselas. Muscat d'Hamburg. Italia and Victoria, Of the Blend in 2010:
Synonyms or Romanian name
|Fetească Albă||w||Dievcie Hrozno||12916|
|Riesling||w||Graševina, Italian Riesling||7530|
|Muscat Ottonel||w||Tamiioasa Ottonel||3641|
|Băbească Neagră||r||Rara Neagră||3042|
|Fetească Neagră||r||Coada Runtunicii||1719|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||w||Tamîioasa Româneascâ||840|
|Grasă de Cotnari||w||Grasă, Grasă Mare||640|
|Cramposie||w||Cramposie Selectionata, Crimposie S.||409|
|Galbenă de Odobesti||w||-||385|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||w||Rusa, Tramin Roz||385|
|Băbească Gris||w||Băbească Gri||328|
|Busuioacă de Bohotin||w||Busuioacă Neagra, Tamâioasa de Bohotin||268|
|Mustoasă de Măderat||w||-||255|
|Plavay (? - ev. Plavec Zuti )||w||-||149|
|Zghihara de Husi||w||Sghigardă Galbenă, Zghihara Galbenă||87|
|kadarka||r||Cadarca, Cadarca Neagra||47|
|Slankamenka Rosie||r||Majarca Rosie||27|
|Negru de Drăgăşani||r||-||6|
|Bătută Neagră||r||Frâncuşă Niagră||3|
|Bagrina||w||Braghinâ, Braghină de Drăgăşani||?|
What Hungary's famous Tokaj, is for Romania the quite similar type of wine Cotnari, This famous wine was forgotten, now it is being revived. Romania is at the same geographical latitude as France. The continental climate with balanced rainfall, warm summers and long, dry autumns makes it ideal for viticulture. The regions and wine-growing areas:
Banat : The region is located in the southwest of the country on the border with Serbia and Hungary, The winegrowing areas are Buzias-Silagiu, Dealul-Tirolului, Minis (known for its red wines from Cadarca and Cabernet Sauvignon), Moldova-Noua, Recas, Severinului and Teremia-Mare (known for its whites from Welschriesling).
Crisana and Maramures : The two regions are located in the northwest on the border Hungary, The winegrowing areas are Diosig, Simleul-Silvaniei and Valea lui Mihai.
Dobrogea (Dobruja): The region is located in the southeast on the Black Sea and is in the west by the Danube (Dunarea) limited. The winegrowing areas are Istria Babadag, Murfatlar, Ostrov and Sarica-Niculitel. In the sunniest climate of Romania with low rainfall here grow soft red and luscious white wines.
Moldova : The largest region, with one third of the vineyard area, is located on the eastern border of the Carpathians in the east of the country Moldova and to Ukraine, The winegrowing areas are Bujor, Cotesti, Cotnari, Covurlui, Dealul Bujorului, Husi, Iasi, Ivesti, Nicoresti, Odobesti, Panciu (known for its sparkling wines), Tutova and Zeletin.
Muntenia (Great Wallachia): The region with the capital Bucharest is located in the south in the Southern Carpathians. The winegrowing areas are Dealurile Buzaului, Dealul Mare, Pietroasele, and Samburesti Stefanesti, Here you will find the highest average temperatures in Romania. The hill country is known today mainly for its red wines from international varieties. At USSR times these were preferably expanded sweet.
Oltenia (Small Wallachia): The region is located in the southwest of the country. The winegrowing areas are Corcova, Crusetu, Dealurile-Craiovei, Drăgăşani, Drincea, Plaiurile-Drincei, Sadova-Corabia, Segarcea and Targu-jiu. Here are excellent red wines from Fetească Neagră and Cabernet Sauvignon pressed. The German winery Reh Kendermann acquired here in 2001, 350 hectares of vineyards and founded the "Carl Reh Winery".
Transilvania (Transylvania): The region in the center is especially known for its white wines. Here were introduced by the German immigrants many own grape varieties. The winegrowing areas are Alba Iulia, Bistrita-Nasaud, Lechinta, Sebes-Apold and Tarnave,
Wine categories : In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):
IG = Indicaţie Geografică or Vin de Regiune : The existing alcohol content must be at least 9.5% (at growing zone B) or 10.0% vol (viticulture zones CI and CII). The total alcoholic strength should not exceed 15% vol. There are about 50 rural vineyards, whose names are mostly identical to the political district or the region.
DOC = Denumire de Origine Controlată : quality wines produced in controlled areas origin, Prescribed Quality wine-grape varieties, The potential alcohol content must be at least 11.5%, the existing at least 10% vol.
DOCC = Denumire de Origine Controlată si trepte de Calitate : This corresponds to a predicate wine. Each type of minimum must weights are prescribed. The codes refer to the degree of ripeness or proportion of noble rotten grapes; the second "C" refers to "Cules" (vintage):
Special wine names / types