With 6,000 years of wine history, Romania is one of the oldest wine-growing countries in Europe. Already the Greek poet Homer mentioned Thracian wines and historians in his Iliad in the 8th century Herodotus (482-425 BC) tells about the wine trade of the Greek colonists on the Black Sea coast. German settlers from Saxony revived viticulture in Transylvania in the 12th century and in the 18th century this was the case with Maria Theresa (1717-1780) Swabia brought into the country. The historical landscape Bessarabia, which has also had viticulture for 5,000 years, was mainly inhabited by Romanians in the early 19th century. This today too Moldova counting area belonged to Romania from 1917 to 1940.
Many new vineyards were created in the 1960s. In the communist era, production was naturally state-owned. As a result of the political upheaval, a wave of privatizations with many very small owners began in 1990. The leading production companies have merged into a private export sales company. The vineyards in 2012 comprised 192,000 hectares of vineyards with a downward trend (in 2000 there were 253,000 hectares). Of this, 3.311 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). Around three quarters are white wines and a quarter are red wines. Romania also has a significant production for table grapes; the main varieties used for this are Afus Ali. Chasselas. Muscat d'Hamburg. Italia and Victoria, The Blend in 2010:
Synonyms or Romanian name
|Feteasca Alba||w||Dievcie Hrozno||12916|
|Riesling||w||Graševina, Italian Riesling||7530|
|Muscat Ottonel||w||Tamîioasa Ottonel||3641|
|Băbească Neagră||r||Rara Neagră||3042|
|Fetească Neagră||r||Coada Răndunicii||1719|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||w||Tamîioasa Româneascâ||840|
|Grasă de Cotnari||w||Grasă, Grasă Mare||640|
|Cramposie||w||Cramposie Selectionata, Crimposie S.||409|
|Galbenă de Odobesti||w||-||385|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||w||Rusa, Traminer Roz||385|
|Băbească Gris||w||Băbească Gri||328|
|Busuioacă de Bohotin||w||Busuioacă Neagra, Tamâioasa de Bohotin||268|
|Mustoasă de Măderat||w||-||255|
|Plavay (? - ev. Plavec Zuti )||w||-||149|
|Zghihara de Husi||w||Sghigardă Galbenă, Zghihară Galbenă||87|
|kadarka||r||Cadarca, Cadarca Neagra||47|
|Slankamenka Rosie||r||Majarca Rosie||27|
|Negru de Drăgăşani||r||-||6|
|Bătută Neagră||r||Frâncușă Niagră||3|
|Bagrina||w||Braghinâ, Braghină de Drăgăşani||?|
What the famous for Hungary Tokaj is the quite similar wine type for Romania Cotnari, This famous wine has been somewhat forgotten, now it is being revived. Romania is at the same latitude as France. The continental climate with balanced rainfall, warm summers and long, dry autumns makes it ideal for viticulture. The regions and wine growing areas:
Banat : The region is located in the southwest of the country on the border Serbia and Hungary, The winegrowing areas are Buzias-Silagiu, Dealul-Tirolului, Minis (known for its red wines from Cadarca and Cabernet Sauvignon), Moldova-Noua, Recas, Severinului and Teremia-Mare (known for its white wines from Welschriesling).
Crisana and Maramures : The two regions lie on the border to the northwest Hungary, The wine growing areas are Diosig, Simleul-Silvaniei and Valea lui Mihai.
Dobrogea (Dobruja): The region lies in the southeast on the Black Sea and is in the west through the Danube (Dunarea) limited. The wine growing areas are Istria-Babadag, Murfatlar, Ostrov and Sarica-Niculitel. In the sunniest climate in Romania with low rainfall, gentle red and lush white wines grow here.
Moldova : The largest region with a third of the vineyard area is located east of the Carpathians in the east of the country on the border Moldova and to Ukraine, The wine growing areas are Bujor, Cotesti, Cotnari, Covurlui, Dealul Bujorului, Husi, Iasi, Ivesti, Nicoresti, Odobesti, Panciu (known for its sparkling wines), Tutova and Zeletin.
Muntenia (Great Wallachia): The region with the capital Bucharest is located in the south in the Southern Carpathians. The wine regions are Dealurile Buzaului, Dealul Mare, Pietroasele, Samburesti and Stefanesti, Here are the highest average temperatures in Romania. The hill country is known today mainly for its red wines from international varieties. In the times of the USSR, these were preferably sweetly expanded.
Oltenia (Little Wallachia): The region is located in the southwest of the country. The wine growing areas are Corcova, Crusetu, Dealurile-Craiovei, Drăgăşani, Drincea, Plaiurile-Drincei, Sadova-Corabia, Segarcea and Targu-Jiu. Excellent red wines from Fetească Neagră and Cabernet Sauvignon are pressed here. The German winery Roe deer Kendermann acquired 350 hectares of vineyards here in 2001 and founded the "Carl Reh Winery".
Transilvania (Transylvania): The region in the center is particularly known for its white wines. German immigrants introduced many of their own grape varieties here. The wine growing areas are Alba Iulia, Bistrita-Nasaud, Lechinta, Sebes-Apold and Tarnave,
Wine categories : In August 2009 the EU wine market regulations with fundamental changes in wine names and quality levels became valid for all member countries. There are the following new names and quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):
IG = Indicație Geografică or Vin de Regiune : The existing alcohol content must be at least 9.5% (at growing zone B) or 10.0% vol (wine-growing zones CI and CII). The total alcohol content may not exceed 15% vol. There are around 50 rural wine regions, the names of which are mostly identical to the political district or region.
DOC = Denumire de Origine Controlată : Quality wines from certain regions with controlled origin, Prescribed Quality wine-grape varieties, The potential alcohol content must be at least 11.5%, the existing at least 10% vol.
DOCC = Denumire de Origine Controlată si trepte de Calitate : This corresponds to a predicate wine. Minimum must weights are prescribed for each type. The codes indicate the degree of ripeness or proportion of noble rot grapes; the second “C” refers to “Cules” (vintage):
Special wine names / types