Despite the collapse of the USSR into many countries, Russia is still the largest country in the world with 17 million km². However, the situation in viticulture changes enormously. South of the Caucasus, vines and winegrowing and the area may have been cultivated 8,000 years ago Transcaucasia applies alongside Mesopotamia as the cradle of wine culture. The oldest wine-growing region in today's Russia is the north Caucasian south Dagestan in the coastal strip of the Caspian Sea. At the beginning of the 17th century, vineyards were created in Astrakhan in the Volga estuary near the Caspian Sea to supply the tsars with wine and grapes. At that time, however, wine culture was underdeveloped and wine was imported in large quantities from France and Germany. The count's wineries were an exception Vorontsov (1782-1856) and Prince Lev Golitsyn. The second is also considered the founder of the famous Krimsekt at his winery Nowyj Swet. Golitsyn also built the famous state winery today on behalf of Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) Massandra on. On these three wineries on the south coast of Crimea (Ukraine), very popular sweet dessert wines of the type of Château d'Yquem, Madeira, port wine and sherry manufactured.
Russian wine-growing suffered severe setbacks due to the two world wars, but new vineyards were planted on a large scale after 1945. The Russian government wanted the immense Vodka consumption restrict and thus the rampant alcoholism fight. All 15 states at that time predominantly operated viticulture indigenous Grape varieties. Before the fall of the USSR in 1990, the vineyard area was 1.11 million hectares, of which 16.31 million hectoliters of wine were produced. At that time, the USSR was one of the largest wine producers in the world. Under Mikhail Gorbachev (* 1931) became an extensive one Clearing program started to limit alcohol consumption. This goal was clearly missed because consumption only dropped marginally. The result was severe losses in government revenue and setbacks for viticulture, particularly in the Ukraine.
Most of the Russian wine-growing regions have a continental climate. Winters are extremely harsh, which is why over half of the vines have to be Winter protection done in the form of earth cover. Around 90% of the vineyards are in the North Caucasus in southwest Russia. The most important wine-growing region is Krasnodar in the foothills of the Caucasus. It lies on the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea and is from the peninsula Crimea separated from Kerch by the street. The second most important is Dagestan in the North Caucasus. Other regions are Stavropol in the foothills of the Caucasus, as well as Rostov and Chechnya (North Caucasus) which are insignificant in terms of quantity. The controversial annexation of the Crimean peninsula took place in March 2014. In 2012, 6.22 million hectoliters of wine were produced from 62,000 hectares of vineyards in Russia. That is an enormous amount and indicates extreme Yields towards (see under Wine production quantities ). The production of sparkling wine has traditionally been of great importance. Over a hundred grape varieties are permitted. Of the Grape variety level 2010 (Kym Anderson ):
|Grape variety||colour||Synonyms or name in Russia||Hectares|
|Dunavski Lazur||White||Dunajski Lazur||483|
|Podarok Magaracha||White||Podarok Magaratcha, Podarok Magaratsch||292|
|Zala Gyöngye||White||Zhemchug Zala||193|
|Muscat Blanc / Muscatel||White||Muscat Belyi||145|
|Trebbiano Toscano||White||Ugni Blanc||66|
|Fioletovy Ranny||red||Filetovyi Ranii||50|
|Goecseji Zamatos||White||Goecsei Zamatos||40|
|Kukanovskii||White||Koukanovsky, Kizilovyi Belyi||?|
|Kumshatsky Bely||White||Kumshatskii Belyi||?|
|Kumshatsky Cherny||red||Kumshatskii Cherny||?|
Former wine-growing USSR countries with small parts of which are significant viticulture Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Belarus.