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Rusia (ES)
Russie (F)
Russia (GB)
Russia (I)
Rusland (N)
Rússia (PO)

Despite the collapse of the USSR in many states, Russia is still the largest country in the world at 17 million km². The situation in the viticulture changed thereby however enormously. South of the Caucasus perhaps 8,000 years ago, vines were cultivated and viticulture operated and the area Transcaucasia applies next Mesopotamia as the cradle of wine culture. As the oldest territory of modern Russia, the North Caucasian Dagestan South in the coastal strip of the Caspian Sea, where since the beginning of the era viticulture was operated on a larger scale. At the beginning of the 17th century, vineyards were established in Astrakhan in the mouth of the Volga River near the Caspian Sea (present-day Russia, on the border with Kazakhstan) to supply wine and grapes to the Tsar's court. During the Tsar's rule, however, the wine culture was underdeveloped and wine was imported in large quantities from especially France and Germany. Exceptions were the wineries of the count Vorontsov (1782-1856) and Prince Lev Golitsyn. The second is also considered the founder of the famous Crimean champagne (Schampanskoje Crimean buoy) at his winery Nowy Svet, Golitsyn also built on behalf of Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) the famous state estate today Massandra on. On these three wineries on the southern coast of Crimea (Ukraine) were also sweet dessert wines in the manner of Château d'Yquem. Madeira. port wine and sherry made, which were very popular among the Russian aristocracy.

Due to the two world wars, Russian viticulture suffered heavy setbacks, but after 1945 large vineyards were created. The Russian government wanted the monstrous Vodka consumption limit and thus the rampant alcoholism fight. From the 15 states at that time all viticulture operated, predominantly root-genuine, autochthone grape varieties were cultivated. Before the break-up of the USSR in 1990, the total vineyard area amounted to 1.11 million hectares, of which 16.31 million hectoliters of wine were produced. At that time, the USSR was one of the largest wine producers in the world. Under Mikhail Gorbachev (* 1931) became an extensive grubbing-up program started to limit alcohol consumption. This objective was clearly missed, because consumption fell only insignificantly. The consequence was heavy losses in the state revenues and setbacks for the viticulture particularly in the Ukraine,

The continental climate prevails in most Russian wine-growing regions. The winters are extremely severe, so must be for over half of the vines winter protection take place in the form of earth cover. Around 90% of the vineyards are located in the North Caucasus in southwestern Russia. The most important winegrowing region is Krasnodar in the Caucasus foreland. It is located on the Sea of ​​Azov and the Black Sea and is from the peninsula Crimea separated by the road from Kerch. The second most important is Dagestan in the North Caucasus. The other regions are Stavropol in the Caucasus foothills, as well as the quantitatively insignificant Rostov and Chechnya (both North Caucasus). In March 2014, the controversial annexation of the Crimean peninsula took place. In 2012, 6.22 million hectoliters of wine were produced in Russia from 62,000 hectares of vineyards. That's a tremendous amount, pointing to extreme yield out (see also under Wine production volumes ). Of great importance has traditionally been the production of sparkling wine. Over a hundred grape varieties are approved for cultivation. The Blend 2010 (Kym Anderson ):

vine colour Synonyms or name in Russia hectare
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 3593
Bianca White - 3513
Pervenets Magaracha White - 2238
Chardonnay White - 1981
Merlot red - 1588
Aligoté White - 1029
Sauvignon Blanc White - 951
Levokumsky red Levokumskij 890
Riesling White - 882
Saperavi red - 716
Rkatsiteli White - 702
Pinot Blanc White - 695
Krasnostop Zolotovsky red - 562
Pinot Noir red - 533
Dunavski Lazur White Dunajski Lazur 483
Tsimlyansky Cherny red Tsimlyansky 451
Saperavi Severny red - 325
Citronny Magaracha White - 307
Viorika White Viorica 307
Podarok Magaracha White Podarok Magaratcha, Podarok Magarach 292
Vidvizhenets pink Vydvijenetz, Vydvizhenets 271
Riton White - 255
Doina red - 227
Traminer White Savagnin Blanc 214
Zala Gyöngye White Zhemchug Zala 193
Muscat d'Hamburg red - 180
Crystal White - 171
Tsvetochny White Tsvetochnyi 169
Isabella red - 162
Amur red - 146
Muscat Blanc / muscatel White Muscat Belyi 145
Stepnyak White Stepniak, Sztyepnyak 144
Riesus White - 115
Müller-Thurgau White - 106
Ruby Golodrigi red - 82
Sukholimansky Bely White - 80
Dekabrskii red Dekabrskiy 78
Pinot Gris White - 78
Onitskanskii Belyi White - 66
Trebbiano Toscano White Ugni Blanc 66
Dostoinyi red - 65
Fioletovy Ranny red Filetovyi Ranii 50
Sauvignonasse White - 48
Goecseji Zamatos White Goecsei Zamatos 40
Golubok White Goloubok, Goluboc 37
Kukanovskii White Koukanovsky, Kizilovyi Belyi ?
Kumshatsky Bely White Kumshatskii Belyi ?
Kumshatsky Cherny red Kumshatskii Cherny ?

Former winegrowing USSR states are to some extent significant viticulture Armenia. Azerbaijan. Estonia. Georgia. Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan. Latvia. Lithuania. Moldova. Tajikistan. turkmenistan. Ukraine. Uzbekistan and Belarus,

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