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Russia

Rusia (ES)
Russie (F)
Russia (GB)
Russia (I)
Rusland (N)
Rússia (PO)

Despite the collapse of the USSR into many countries, Russia is still the largest country in the world with 17 million km². However, the situation in viticulture changes enormously. South of the Caucasus, vines and winegrowing and the area may have been cultivated 8,000 years ago Transcaucasia applies alongside Mesopotamia as the cradle of wine culture. The oldest wine-growing region in today's Russia is the north Caucasian south Dagestan in the coastal strip of the Caspian Sea. At the beginning of the 17th century, vineyards were created in Astrakhan in the Volga estuary near the Caspian Sea to supply the tsars with wine and grapes. At that time, however, wine culture was underdeveloped and wine was imported in large quantities from France and Germany. The count's wineries were an exception Vorontsov (1782-1856) and Prince Lev Golitsyn. The second is also considered the founder of the famous Krimsekt at his winery Nowyj Swet. Golitsyn also built the famous state winery today on behalf of Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) Massandra on. On these three wineries on the south coast of Crimea (Ukraine), very popular sweet dessert wines of the type of Château d'Yquem, Madeira, port wine and sherry manufactured.

Russian wine-growing suffered severe setbacks due to the two world wars, but new vineyards were planted on a large scale after 1945. The Russian government wanted the immense Vodka consumption restrict and thus the rampant alcoholism fight. All 15 states at that time predominantly operated viticulture indigenous Grape varieties. Before the fall of the USSR in 1990, the vineyard area was 1.11 million hectares, of which 16.31 million hectoliters of wine were produced. At that time, the USSR was one of the largest wine producers in the world. Under Mikhail Gorbachev (* 1931) became an extensive one Clearing program started to limit alcohol consumption. This goal was clearly missed because consumption only dropped marginally. The result was severe losses in government revenue and setbacks for viticulture, particularly in the Ukraine.

Most of the Russian wine-growing regions have a continental climate. Winters are extremely harsh, which is why over half of the vines have to be Winter protection done in the form of earth cover. Around 90% of the vineyards are in the North Caucasus in southwest Russia. The most important wine-growing region is Krasnodar in the foothills of the Caucasus. It lies on the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea and is from the peninsula Crimea separated from Kerch by the street. The second most important is Dagestan in the North Caucasus. Other regions are Stavropol in the foothills of the Caucasus, as well as Rostov and Chechnya (North Caucasus) which are insignificant in terms of quantity. The controversial annexation of the Crimean peninsula took place in March 2014. In 2012, 6.22 million hectoliters of wine were produced from 62,000 hectares of vineyards in Russia. That is an enormous amount and indicates extreme Yields towards (see under Wine production quantities ). The production of sparkling wine has traditionally been of great importance. Over a hundred grape varieties are permitted. Of the Grape variety level 2010 (Kym Anderson ):

Grape variety colour Synonyms or name in Russia Hectares
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 3,593
Bianca White - 3,513
Pervenets Magaracha White - 2,238
Chardonnay White - 1,981
Merlot red - 1,588
Aligote White - 1,029
Sauvignon Blanc White - 951
Levokumsky red Levokumsky 890
Riesling White - 882
Saperavi red - 716
Rkatsiteli White - 702
Pinot Blanc White - 695
Krasnostop Zolotovsky red - 562
Pinot Noir red - 533
Dunavski Lazur White Dunajski Lazur 483
Tsimlyansky Cherny red Tsimlyansky 451
Saperavi Severny red - 325
Citronny Magaracha White - 307
Viorika White Viorica 307
Podarok Magaracha White Podarok Magaratcha, Podarok Magaratsch 292
Vidvizhenets pink Vydvijenetz, Vydvizhenets 271
Riton White - 255
Doina red - 227
Traminer White Savagnin Blanc 214
Zala Gyöngye White Zhemchug Zala 193
Muscat d'Hamburg red - 180
Crystal White - 171
Tsvetochny White Tsvetochnyi 169
Isabella red - 162
Amur red - 146
Muscat Blanc / Muscatel White Muscat Belyi 145
Stepnyak White Stepniak, Sztyepnyak 144
Riesus White - 115
Müller-Thurgau White - 106
Ruby Golodrigi red - 82
Sukholimansky Bely White - 80
Dekabrskii red Dekabrskiy 78
Pinot gris White - 78
Onitskanskii Belyi White - 66
Trebbiano Toscano White Ugni Blanc 66
Dostoinyi red - 65
Fioletovy Ranny red Filetovyi Ranii 50
Sauvignonasse White - 48
Goecseji Zamatos White Goecsei Zamatos 40
Golubok White Goloubok, Goluboc 37
Kukanovskii White Koukanovsky, Kizilovyi Belyi ?
Kumshatsky Bely White Kumshatskii Belyi ?
Kumshatsky Cherny red Kumshatskii Cherny ?


Former wine-growing USSR countries with small parts of which are significant viticulture Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Belarus.

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