The red grape variety comes from Italy, There are more than 80 synonyms attesting to the age and wide distribution, especially in the country of origin. Some are Brunelletto, Brunello, Cacchiano, Calabrese, Cardisco, Cassano, Cordisio, Chiantino, Corinto Negro, Guarnacciola, Ingannacane, Lambrusco Mendoza, Liliano, Montepulciano Primaticcio, Morellino, Morellino di Scansano, Negrello, Nero, Nerello Campotu, Niella, Nielluccio, Primaticcio, Prugnolo Dolce, Prugnolo Gentile, Puttanella, Sangiogheto, Sangiovese dal Cannello Lungo, Sangiovese dal Cannello Lungo di Predappio, Sangiovese di Lamole, Sangiovese di Romagna, Sangiovese Dolce, Sangiovese Elba, Sangiovese Grosso, Sangiovese Nostrano, Sangiovese Piccolo, Sangiovese Romagnolo, San Gioveto, Sangioveto, San Zoveto, Tabernello, Tignolo, Tignolo Sointovese, Toustain, Tuccanese, Uva Canina, Vigna del Conte and Vigna Maggio.
The variety was first named "Sangiogheto" by the Italian agronomist Giovanni Soderini (1526-1596) mentioned in his posthumously published work in 1600. Allegedly, the name is of Latin origin (Sanguis Jovis), which means "blood of Jupiter" and refers to one antique Origin of the vine should indicate. According to an unverifiable hypothesis, an ancestor allegedly already has the Etruscans have been known. It is one of the most important Italian leading varieties with numerous descendants.
Despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or large morphological Sangiovese does not have similarities with the varieties Ciliegiolo. Montepulciano. Morellino del Casentino. Morellino del Valdarno. Nero d'Avola. Perricone. Sanvicetro or Uva Tosca be confused. extensive DNA analysis have revealed that to the varieties Aleatico. Ciliegiolo. Foglia Tonda. Frappato. Gaglioppo. Inzolia Nera. Morellino del Casentino. Morellino del Valdarno. Nerello Mascalese. Orisi and Perricone a Parent-offspring relationship consists. Sangiovese was also crossing partner of the new breeds Incrocio Bruni 147. Incrocio Bruni 60, some Dalmasso varieties and Merlese,
The exact parentage is not clear. The Swiss biologist dr. José Vouillamoz noted in 2007 that Sangiovese xl cross between Ciliegiolo Calabrese di Montenuovo comes from (so Sangiovese is a descendant). This is in contradiction to later analyzes by Dr. med. Manna Crespan, who for Ciliegiolo has a parenting of Sangiovese x Muscat Rouge de Madère (ie Sangiovese is a parent). Finally revealed by Thierry Lacombe In 2012, two possible parents were analyzed for Sangiovese. These are Frappato di Vittoria (Frappato) x Foglia Tonda or Gaglioppo x Foglia Tonda. However, since some of these strains have a parent-offspring relationship with Sangiovese, this is not quite as amazing. Because of two possible variants and only 20 matching DNA markers but the result is at least doubtful (see under molecular Genetics ).
There are numerous Clones the variety with slightly different taste profiles. Earlier on the basis of the published in 1908 investigations by the ampelographers Girolamo Molon a rough classification according to the berry size and deducing also quality in the two groups Sangiovese Grosso ( Brunello and Prugnolo gentile, as well as Sangiovese di Lamole in Chianti) and Sangiovese Piccolo in other Tuscany areas. However, this is not considered justified because there are no genetic differences in the DNA profile.
Due to the great adaptability to different soil types Over centuries, different tastes came up. In the late 1990s, the best clones began to be selected. The yield-proof vine is prone to Botrytis and yellowing, but resistant to drought, Characteristic is the slow, late maturity, It usually produces not very colorful, but reds with alcohol, acidity and tannins with aromas of cherries, violets, plums and leather, as well as large aging potential,
In 2010, the acreage was in Italy 71,619 hectares with an upward trend (ten years earlier it was 62,761 hectares). This makes it by far the most common Italian grape variety, which in almost all regions but especially in the Tuscany is common. It is the basis for many famous top Italian wines. These are above all the DOCG wines Brunello di Montalcino. Carmignano. Chianti. Chianti Classico. Conero. Morellino di Scansano. Rosso Conero. Torgiano Rosso Riserva and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, as well as countless DOC wines and also some of the so-called Super-Tuscans such as Tignanello,
In France In 2010, the acreage was 1,589 hectares with a consistent trend (ten years earlier it was a few hectares more). The majority is on Corsica where the variety was introduced by the Genoese from Italy, who dominated the island until the end of the 18th century. It is there mostly under the name Nielluccio in all Appellations red wines and rosé wines, as well as in the Vin de pays (Landwein) admitted. There were other smaller stocks in Europe Romania (88 ha), Turkey (9 ha) and Hungary (1 ha).
Outside Europe, there are cultivated areas in the countries Argentina (2,011 ha), Australia (589 ha), Brazil (26 ha), Chile (100 ha), Israel. Canada (3 ha), New Zealand (6 ha), South Africa (61 ha), Thailand (2 ha) and Tunisia (842 ha), as well as in the United States (852 ha) in the states California and Washington, In 2010, a total of 77,709 hectares of vineyards with increasing tendency were reported (ten years earlier, there were 68,877 hectares). The variety thus occupied in the world varieties ranking the rank 13th
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)