The red grape comes from Italy. There are over 80 Synonyms that testify to the age and wide spread, especially in Italy. Some are Brunelletto, Brunello, Cacchiano, Calabrese, Cardisco, Cassano, Cordisio, Chiantino, Corinto Negro, Guarnacciola, Ingannacane, Lambrusco Mendoza, Lacrima, Liliano, Montepulciano Primaticcio, Morellino, Morellino di Scansano, Negrello, Nerello, Nerello Campot Nielluccio, Primaticcio, Prugnolo Dolce, Prugnolo Gentile, Puttanella, Sangiogheto, Sangiovese dal Cannello Lungo, Sangiovese dal Cannello Lungo di Predappio, Sangiovese di Lamole, Sangiovese di Romagna, Sangiovese Dolce, Sangiovese Elba, Sangiovese Sangiovese Sangiovese Sangiovese Romagnolo, San Gioveto, Sangioveto, San Zoveto, Tabernello, Tignolo, Tignolo Sointovese, Toustain, Tuccanese, Uva Canina, Vigna del Conte and Vigna Maggio.
The variety was first called "Sangiogheto" by the Italian agronomist Giovanni Soderini (1526-1596) mentioned in his work published in 1600 posthumously. The name is said to be of Latin origin (Sanguis Jovis), which means "blood of Jupiter" and means one ancient To indicate the origin of the vine. According to a non-verifiable hypothesis, an ancestor is said to already have the Etruscan be known. In any case, it is one of the most important Italian Guide varieties with numerous offspring.
Despite apparently suggestive synonyms or large ones morphological Sangiovese must not be similar to the varieties Ciliegiolo, Montepulciano, Morellino del Casentino, Morellino del Valdarno, Nero d'Avola, Perricone, Sanvicetro or Uva Tosca be confused. Comprehensive DNA analysis have revealed that to the varieties Aleatico, Ciliegiolo, Foglia Tonda, Frappato, Gaglioppo, Inzolia Nera, Morellino del Casentino, Morellino del Valdarno, Nerello Mascalese, Orisi and Perricone a Parent-offspring relationship consists. Sangiovese was also a crossing partner of the new varieties Incrocio Bruni 147, Incrocio Bruni 60, some Dalmasso varieties and Merlese.
The exact lineage (parenthood) has not been clearly established. The Swiss biologist Dr. José Vouillamoz found in 2007 that Sangiovese was a cross between Ciliegiolo x Calabrese di Montenuovo comes from (so Sangiovese is a descendant). However, this contradicts later analyzes by Dr. Manna Crespan, for Ciliegiolo a parenthood of Sangiovese x Muscat Rouge de Madère (so Sangiovese is a parent). Finally surrendered by Thierry Lacombe in 2012, analyzes were carried out of two possible parenthoods for Sangiovese. These are Frappato di Vittoria (Frappato) x Foglia Tonda or Gaglioppo x Foglia Tonda. However, since some of these strains have a parent-offspring relationship with Sangiovese, this is not that surprising. However, due to two possible variants and only 20 matching DNA markers, the result is at least doubtful (see under Molecular genetics ).
There are many Clones the variety with slightly different taste profiles. Previously, based on the studies published in 1908 by the Ampelograph Girolamo Molon a rough classification according to the size of the berries and from this also quality in the two groups Sangiovese Grosso ( Brunello and Prugnolo Gentile, as well as Sangiovese di Lamole in Chianti) and Sangiovese Piccolo in other Tuscany zones. However, this is no longer justified because there are no genetic differences in the DNA profile.
Due to the great adaptability to different Soil types Different tastes have emerged over the centuries. At the end of the 1990s, the best clones were selected. The yield-proof vine is susceptible to Botrytis and Yellowing but resistant to drought. The slow, late is characteristic Maturity. It usually produces not very colorful, but alcohol, acid and tannin-rich red wines with aromas of cherries, violets, plums and leather, as well as large Aging potential.
In 2010 the acreage was in Italy 71,619 hectares with increasing tendency (ten years earlier it was 62,761 hectares). It is by far the most common Italian grape variety, but especially in almost all regions Tuscany is common. It is the basis for many famous Italian top red wines. These are primarily the DOCG wines Brunello di Montalcino, Carmignano, Chianti, Chianti Classico, Conero, Morellino di Scansano, Rosso Conero, Torgiano Rosso Riserva and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, as well as countless DOC wines and some of the so-called Super Tuscan such as Tignanello.
In France In 2010 the area under cultivation was 1,589 hectares with a constant trend (ten years earlier it was a few hectares more). The majority is on Corsica, where the variety was imported from Italy by the Genoese who ruled the island until the end of the 18th century. It is mostly approved under the name Nielluccio in all appellation red and rose wines, as well as in the Vin de pays (country wines). There were further smaller stocks in Europe in Romania (88 ha), Turkey (9 ha) and Hungary (1 ha).
Outside of Europe, there is acreage in the countries Argentina (2,011 ha), Australia (589 ha), Brazil (26 ha), Chile (100 ha), Israel, Canada (3 ha), New Zealand (6 ha), South Africa (61 ha), Thailand (2 ha) and Tunisia (842 ha), as well as in the United States (852 hectares) in the states California and Washington. In 2010, a total of 77,709 hectares of vineyards were shown with increasing tendency (ten years earlier, there were 68,877 hectares). The variety thus proved worldwide Grape variety ranking rank 13.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)