The region (ital. Sardegna) with the capital Cagliari is after Sicily the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Geologically, it is the oldest part Italy and once connected to the mainland. It is divided into the four provinces of Sassari in the northwest, Oristano in the west, Cagliari in the south and Nuoro in the east. More than 3,000 years ago, the great Sardinians hauled huge stones to their places of life, working them with primitive tools and layering them on top of each other. These "Nuraghi" scattered all over the island are the Sardinian landmark and also gave the autochthonous white grape Nuragus the name. Already in the 9th century BC Chr. The Sardinians operated viticulture, whereby this art of the Phoenicians had learned.
Through the changeful history influenced by the Carthaginian, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Muslims, Pisans and Genoese developed here a diverse wine range. Especially the Spaniards brought many grape varieties from the 13th century and this influenced over centuries the independence of the Sardinian grape varieties and the types of wine. Mainly of grape varieties of Spanish origin were formerly largely alcoholic and dessert wines similar to the sherry or port wine produced. Even today, traditionally made to high alcohol content, sweet Liquoroso wines a considerable proportion.
Sardinia is made up of 85% of mountains and plateaus, and viticulture is mainly practiced in the gently rolling Campidano plain between Cagliari and Oristano and in the Alghero plain. The southern location in the Mediterranean ensures abundant sunshine. Especially on the south coast there is also dryness, therefore, an artificial irrigation forced. The temperatures are very different. In the cooler north are mainly fresh, fruity white wines; The warm south and west sides offer good conditions for red, white and dessert wines. The allowable yield limits are relatively high compared to other regions.
The vineyards cover about 26,500 hectares of vineyards. Two-thirds produce red wines and one-third white wines. The most important white wines are Chardonnay, Malvasia di Sardegna ( Malvasia di Lipari ), Moscato Bianco ( Muscat Blanc ) Malvasia di Lipari. Nasco. Nuragus. Nuragus Arrubiu. Nuragus Moscadeddu, Sauvignon ( Sauvignon Blanc ) Semidano. Torbato. Trebbiano Romagnolo. Trebbiano Toscano and Vermentino, The most important red wines are Bovale Grande or Bovale di Spagna or Carignan ( mazuelo ), Bovale Sardo or Cagnulari ( Graciano ) Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon, Cannonau ( Garnacha Tinta ), Carcajolo Nero ( Parraleta ) Carmenère. Giro. Merlot, Monica ( Monica Nera ), Niedda Mannu ( Pascale ) and Sangiovese,
The vines are still in the traditional, especially in the plains training system Albarello ( gobelet ) behaved. The production is largely of large Winzergenossenschaften (Cantina Sociale). The largest trading house for wine in Sardinia is Sella & Mosca, The 15th IGT areas (or IGP - the land wines) are Barbagia, Colli del Limbara, Isola dei Nuraghi, Marmilla, Nurra, Ogliastra, Parteolla, Planargia, Provincia di Nuoro, Romangia, Sibiola, Tharros, Trexenta, Valle del Tirso and Valli di Porto Pino. The 18 DOC / DOCG zones are: