Designation for during the blossom self-pollination of a plant with its own pollens, which in turn leads to self-pollination (in practice, however, the two terms are often not properly mutually used as a synonym). The cultivated vine has mostly hermaphrodite, The male and female organs are in one flower bud united. Significant by this fact occurs in cultured vines mostly a self-fertilization. The process within the hermaphrodite (autogamous) or between two flowers of the same genus (later grape) is called self-fertilization in the narrower sense. Between flowers of two plants of a vine one calls this self-fertilization in a broader sense (geitonogam).
A new variety with a fundamentally different genetic composition is most likely to arise when no self-fertilization, but one pollination made by another variety. In this way, thousands of years ago, innumerable grape varieties spontaneously arose naturally when the grape seeds got into the soil and germinated. The present varieties, however, have emerged only through the selection of man, who according to various criteria such as high earnings or tasting "best" vines and propagating them vegetatively. However, the genetic material of the mother and father plants are also recombined if the fertilization took place within two vines of the same variety. Their genetic differences are rather small, because the vines mostly in the vineyard Clones (1: 1 copies) vegetative propagation are.
For the look and taste of grapes it does not matter which father is fertilized. They correspond externally and with respect varietal 100% of the mother's properties, no matter which paternal genes the berry kernels contain (see below) blossom ). If self-fertilized grape seeds get into the soil and germinate there, they are produced by the seedling an inbred variety. However, naturally occurring self-effects rarely lead to a qualitative improvement, because mostly negative inbreeding effects (depression) occur, which are expressed in a lower vitality, a lower fruit set and increased susceptibility to pathogens (pathogens). In viticulture, this is undesirable, or does it not matter, since the grapes for the pressing and their cores are not intended for sowing. The proliferation of vines on a large scale is not based on sexual, but vegetative Way instead.
Frequently such self-fertilized seeds do not germinate or germinate, but the berry seeds of this new vine are barren. This is also sort-dependent; the seeds of Gouais blanc z. B. are particularly germinable (from him come from over 100 varieties). Even if you cross its descendants, they are still fertile. In many species, however, depressive offspring result. Only around 10% of the offspring have a positive gene combination. Nature protects itself from negative effects by the fact that as with the Wild vines male and female organs only occur separately on different plants ( dioecious ), or self-pollination does not make self-fertilization possible. In the breeding (Crossbreeding), one tries to specifically use the positive inbreeding effects by enhancing positive qualities. If necessary, two different Clones the same grape variety crossed.
Graphics: Taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, viticulture,
ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH