One of the oldest educational systems in viticulture (also single-stick education, stake culture or stick culture), which is already in the antiquity was used. In Austria it was the most common method of education in viticulture until the 1950s. Every single one Rebstock supported with a single stake. It was a very high one planting density with 8,000 to 10,000 sticks per hectare with a low trunk height. The development of the vines near the ground caused an increased disease and frost damage, This is why this form gradually came to an end after the Second World War high culture replaced.
A special shape in Germany is the so-called Moselle pile education that takes place at the Moselle was used by the Romans who cultivated wine here as early as the 1st century. This will be two shoots of the vine with 12 to 18 each eyes per square meter attached to the trunk in circular arches. This favors high yield, The foliage care in summer, however, it is very labor intensive and mechanization is not possible. Floor care is also hampered by shoots hanging low. It is becoming rare and mainly on steep slopes used. It will still be in the growing areas Ahr Moselle middle Rhine used.
A very descriptive video (click to watch) about the annual growth cycle the grapevine with all stages of the Hibernation to vintage can be seen in the example of Moselle pile education. See also lists below training system (Systems) and Weingarten Care (Activities).