Next climate. vine one of the most important factors influencing wine quality. The different types of soil have evolved in millions of years through physical and chemical weathering of rocks as well as humification of organic matter (see also under geology ). During physical weathering, forces of nature such as wind, water, heat, cold and ice first cause the mechanical fragmentation of rock formations into pebbles and gravel. Strong temperature differences, frictional and shear forces as well as frost damage caused by frozen water play an important role in rock fissures. Chemical weathering processes like oxidation, Solution processes and acid attacks attack the mineral lattice structure of the rocks. This easily water-soluble minerals such as carbonates and Sulfate first dissolved, the rock slowly decays to grus, sand, silt or clay. Any rock, even the hardest granite or quartz will eventually crumble to dust, even if it takes millions of millions of years.
Organic substances from plant residues, animal residues of worms, insects and small animals of all kinds as well as dead ones microorganisms such as seaweed. bacteria and mushrooms be in humus transformed. The essential for plant growth nitrogen compounds (Nitrate, ammonium) as well as others nutrient released. In the decomposition of organic residues such as wood, leaves, roots or animal corpses mushrooms and bacteria play the main role. Insects such as ground mites are important because of their crushing feeding activities. Earthworms are critically involved in soil loosening, mixing and the formation of stable clay-humus complexes that are formed in the earthworm gut and excreted as feces. These contribute to the structural stability of the soil and can easily bind water-soluble nutrients and thus make longer available to the plants.
Each soil consists of soil horizons (soil layers) with special properties. They are almost always horizontal and can be seen in the soil profile (vertical section of the soil in a dig). The sequence is the essential criterion for determining the soil type. From top to bottom, a soil is divided into an organic soil horizon or HLO horizon (peat from plant remains, litter) and a tripartite mineral horizon. These are A-horizon (mineral topsoil with an animated, humus-rich layer), B-horizon (mineral subsoil with humus-poor layer with fine soil already chemically sand, silt or clay) and C-horizon (little changed source rock with physical weathering). By deep mechanical tillage horizons are mixed. Depending on the climate and Erosional action The A or B horizon may also be missing or only marginally formed.
In a vineyard, the horizons have usually already been mixed by tillage. Subsoil, bottom, tillage, fertilization and water balance with a balance between the Water storage capacity and the water discharge shape next to the local climate (Small climate or climate layer) the location vineyard and give each vineyard location the typical and distinctive character of the ancestry, The duration of the growth cycle, the alignment of the exposition (Solar radiation) and the local climate on the slope, the existing soil conditions, the Humus- and lime content and the water supply influence the choice of the most suitable varieties,
The well-known geologist and wine-book author James E. Wilson aptly writes in his book "Terroir - The key to wine": "Soil is the soul of the grapevine" . However, the direct relation of rock, grape variety and wine character is often due to the common use rooted more shallow documents with strong mineral fertilization and the use of new viticultural Kellermethoden its only marginally pronounced. In the formerly sparingly and mostly organically fertilized vineyards with their old, ungrafted planted and often deeply rooted in the rock vines this relationship was certainly much more effective.
The French, in particular, have recognized the importance of the interaction of climate-rock-soil-location-micro-climate and grape variety very early on and this in the creation of the term terroir raised to their philosophy, so to speak. The terroir with the suitable grape varieties is used in the classification of wine regions as Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) defined by wine law. This is a clear difference to the philosophy, for example in Germany and Austria, where not the location, but mainly the grape variety and the resulting varietal pure vintage wines given great (too much) importance.
Of great advantage is when the Rebstock his roots must drill as deep as possible into the ground. Due to the ability of soils as ion exchanger To function, ie to exchange nutrient salts in the soil solution against the protons released by the plant (H +) and anions (OH-), the supply of the roots with essential nutrients and allows trace elements in the first place. The absorbed minerals are found in total extract a wine again. The vine needs around twenty essential trace elements and the main nutrients to thrive optimally. As a permanent crop, it is less dependent on fertile soils than annual crops. There are not infrequently layers with very barren soils, where high-quality wines grow. But that does not mean that the less quality of nutrients in the soil, the better the quality of the wine.
A lack of nitrogen and amino acids in the must the yeasts in the fermentation hamper and Gärfehler cause. Among other things, this may be due to the wine defect UTA (untypical age tone). Rather, the harmonious composition of nutrients in the soil, the availability of water and nutrients as well as the state of aggregation and rooting are of importance for the suitability of a soil for viticulture. Through plant or soil tests by means of EUF method a lack of nutrients can be detected and possibly through fertilization be resolved. A comprehensive classification or determination of the soil quality for agricultural use in general or especially for viticulture is carried out by means of Bonitur,
On lime-rich soils with pH values over 8 hampers the high Calcium level in the ground recording other doubly positively charged ions such as Nitrogen Compounds. magnesium or the trace elements boron. iron. manganese or zinc so that lime chlorosis or other physiological deficiency symptoms may occur even with normally adequate nutrient levels in the soil. Especially at the beginning of the growth cycle, the nitrogen content (in the form of nitrate and ammonium) in the soil should be sufficient. As a general rule, alkaline (alkaline) soils with a high pH above 8 (for example, limestone, chalk and marl soils with mostly high levels of calcium and magnesium) will produce wines with higher acid content, while acid soils with low pH under 6 to 4 (for example, granite, quartz sand) cause wines with lower acidity. Experiments with increased potassium supplements have shown that vines react with increased malic acid production. To compensate for the increased influx of positive potassium ions, the plant produces negatively charged acid anions (malic acid). However, other causes (irrespective of vintage or maturity acidity) naturally contribute to the acidity in wine.
A good vineyard soil should be rather lean, medium to deep, well aerated, permeable to water and not compacted, rich but not too rich, not too rich in humus but rich in mineral components. The best layers are so-called slopes because this creates an almost vertical angle of incidence for the sun's rays in late summer, and thus the maximum of radiation can be exploited. The best location on the slope is the wind-calmed concave center (belly, navel, kidney), where the highest temperature sums be reached and the soil is usually well drained. Soil color also plays an important role, as dark soils absorb the heat of the sun faster and more extensively, while light soils reflect light so that such soils do not heat up so quickly and so much. The suitability of an area for viticulture is called Weinbauwürdigkeit, which can be determined on the basis of a list of criteria.
Alberese: Italian name for the weathered sandstone that occurs, for example, in the best Chianti areas (see also Galestro).
Alluvium / Alluvion (alluvial soil ): Alluvium / Alluvion alluvium . The geological name for the flooding is "fluviatil". Alluvium is also another name for the Holocene, the most recent and since the end of the last ice age about 10,000 years to this day enduring earth ages. Alluvial soils are mostly fine-grained, very fertile soil types that arise in the flood and estuarine areas of rivers. They consist of flushed and sedimented water sediment soil particles.
Depending on the rate of sinking of the soil particles entrained in the water and the flow velocity of the flood, they consist of clayey mud, silt, sand or in the immediate bank area with high discharge rates and strong erosion dynamics of gravel and pebbles. Despite predominantly rocky and sandy texture, as for example in the French Médoc, these soils are very suitable for viticulture. The secret of the local layers are deposited during various floods and covered with sand and gravel clay lenses inside the alluvial gravel terraces that can store water. Such clay layers are formally sought by the vine roots.
Amphibolite: For the most part black over gray to dark green rock, formed by the metamorphic transformation of basalt (see below) under high pressure and temperature conditions. It consists of up to 50% of representatives of the amphibole group such as hornblende (see below) or Tschermakit, and up to 40% from other minerals such as garnet and quartz, and ores such as magnetite and pyrite.
Aeolian: named after the Greek wind god Aeolus, caused by the wind phenomena. By an Aeolian transport fine material such as loess, silt (silt) or clay is released from the source material such as loose rock and transported by the wind over long distances. Aeolian weathering refers to the removal of rocks by moving sand grains, fine gravel, etc. with the effect of a sandblast blower. This creates an aeolian weathered soil.
Arkose: The geological term describes a pink to reddish, coarse-grained sandstone with a high proportion of feldspar, which occurs mainly in dry, arid areas. It leads to the more granular granitic rocks.
Floors: Floors resulting from river deposits that are periodically flooded. Such come in for example Danube-. Moselle- and Rheinauen in front. When they are no longer flooded, they develop into brown earth and parabraun earth. These soils are mostly nutrient-rich, biologically active and fertile.
Basalt: Basic effusion (cooled magma) consisting of feldspar, hornblende, olivine and magnetite. It contains a lot of lime and soda and is rich in minerals. The hard, slowly weathering rock forms good soil and produces wines with appealing acidity.
Pumice (pumice stone, Bimstuff): The porous, glassy volcanic rock is formed by gas-rich volcanic eruptions in which the lava is foamed by water vapor and carbon dioxide. It does not differ chemically from other lava, but is much lighter due to the trapped air. The color varies from black and with increasing air content over gray to white. The term Bimstuff refers to the grain size, at least 75% must consist of volcanic ash. Floors made of pumice have a good water retention capacity and are very suitable for viticulture. They are found throughout the Greek island Santorini that originated from a volcano explosion. Similar to the pumice is the obsidian, which contains much less carbon dioxide. See also below Canava and below at volcanic rock.
Blue slate : See below for slate.
Boulbènes: In Bordeaux common name for a very fine, siliceous soil. He comes on the plateau of the area Entre-deux-Mers in front.
Brown earth: These ABC soils develop mainly over lime-poor, but base-rich rocks such as granite, gneiss, greywacke, clay shale and clayey sandstone. The formation took place under humid climatic conditions from humus-rich topsoils on lime-poor silicate rock (Rankern) with deciduous and Mischwaldbestockung. The brown coloration in the B horizon is caused by iron oxides, which are formed during the chemical weathering of iron-containing silicates. The acids released by the tree roots contributed greatly to the deep weathering of the B horizon. Limestone content, content of stones and water balance of brown earths can vary greatly. Depending on its nature, this can be an excellent soil for viticulture.
Parabraun earth differs from the brown earth in that clay particles have been transferred from upper to deeper layers. This is a process that occurs in soil acidification. By lime solution putty lime structures disappear, so that the liberated clay particles are washed away with the leachate into deeper soil layers. Parabraunerden originated mostly from Pararendzinen. Parabraun and brown earth are the most widespread soils in humid Europe. Loam and Loess-Parabraunerden are among the most fertile soils.
Buntsandstein : Colored, mostly red sandstone with partly clayey floods. The Buntsandstein originated from the erosion debris of mountains of the Erdaltertums. It was deposited in a dry semi-desert climate in a large basin (Germanic Basin) in the middle of today's Europe and later overlaid by sedimentary rocks such as the Jurassic Lime or by fly-lice.
Iron: See below Terra Rossa and below at Rotliegendes.
Feldspar: Complex silicate compounds of white and reddish minerals, which are involved in about 60% of the composition of the earth's crust. These contain iron, potassium, calcium and sodium. There are the three main groups potassium feldspar (adular, sanidine), soda lime feldspar (albite, pericline, anorthite) and microlin. Weathering creates base-rich clay minerals that can release mineral-bound ions as nutrients to the vine. Feldspar is one of the three main components of granite and gneiss - see below.
Flintstone: The gray to black-colored rock (flint, silex) of the finely crystalline quartz species chalcedony with splintery-shell-like fracture has a white, porous surface structure. It comes from siliceous sea creatures (diatoms, radiolarians = marine plankton - see also under diatomaceous ). This soil gives typical wines with a taste of flint such as the French Pouilly-Fumé,
fluviatil: Removed from running water or deposited - the result is an alluvion or alluvium soil (alluvial soil); see above.
Flysch: fossilized sandstones as well as marl and slate, which were formed on the edge of a forming mountain from the erosion debris. In the narrower sense these are the rocks from the time of the beginning of the Alps, which can be found in the northern Alps from the Austrian Wienerwald to the western part of Switzerland. The slippery rock gives a landscape characterized by gentle, round hills. Typical example is the area Collio Goriziano, the typical soil there is named after the place as "Flysch di Cormòns". Flysch rock with predominant quartz sandstone also comes on Bisamberg at Wien (Austria).
Galestro: Famous blue-gray limestone slate soil from the best growing areas of the Tuscany Often occurring in the area Chianti Classico (see also above under Alberese). After the ground, a white wine was named.
Garrigue : Mediterranean shrub heath formation on shallow soils, mainly in France (eg Châteauneuf-du-Pape ), Italy (Sardinia) and North Africa.
Loam or Berglehm: This occurs in mountainous and hilly areas. It represents the loamy weathering bark of the upcoming rock type. Such loams are interspersed with rock fragments. See also below for clay.
Gypsum: Frequently occurring mineral of the class of hydrous sulfates (calcium sulfate). As a rule, it is colorless or white, but can assume a yellowish, reddish, gray or brown color due to various admixtures. A common crystalline species is alabaster. Geologically, gypsum has been formed by crystallization from calcium sulphate-supersaturated seawater. It is often contained in clays and marls.
Gleye: Soil type over a groundwater layer about 1.3 meters underground. Gley soils are common in alluvial forests, in sinkholes and on rivers. They are characterized by a rust-red oxidation horizon and the underlying gray-red reduction horizon. The reductive processes in the oxygen-poor groundwater horizon lead to the solution of iron and manganese, which rises with the groundwater and is oxidized rust-red in the oxidation horizon. In constantly drenched, oxygen-poor soil horizons, root growth is generally strongly inhibited, so that such soils are not suitable for viticulture. Pseudoeye arise when ground compaction due to a bad water deduction the precipitation water can not seep into the subsoil and forms an astonishing rainwater horizon, in which the roots rot. Such soils are referred to as waterlogging soils.
Gneiss: medium to coarse-grained metamorphic rocks formed by high pressure and temperature effects from transformation from other rocks, as well as crystalline schists in gray, green-gray, red-gray and red-brown. The name derives from the Old German "Geneus" (deaf solid rock between the veins). Main parts are feldspar (orthoclase, mostly over 20%), quartz and mica (biotite, muscovite, fuchsite). It may also contain cordierite, epidote, garnet, hornblende, sillimanite and others. It is distinguished in ortho-gneiss from converted solidification rock (magma) and para-gneiss from converted sedimentary rock.
Granite: Most common solidification rock (Pluton). The slightly acidic weathered rock was created by cooling or slow crystallization of silicon dioxide-rich magma at very great depths. Main components are quartz, feldspar and mica and often hornblende. The soil produces mineral and rather less acidic wines. The northern part of the French Beaujolais or the Ortenau in the German wine-growing region to bathe consists of such granite weathered floors.
Greywacke: debris sediments of dark gray to gray-green very hard sandstone with varying content of quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite and other minerals, as well as rock fragments of clay and gravel schists. Greywacke is often used for the production of paving stones. This soil is perfect for viticulture. He comes in the German growing areas Ahr. Moselle. middle Rhine and Rheingau in front. The famous 132 meter high Loreley rock near St. Goarshausen on the Middle Rhine consists of greywacke.
Grus (grusig): Small angular-edged and brittle rock pieces in the grain size of 2 to 6 mm, which are caused by weathering. In the case of so-called neglect or grief, rock (granite, shale, etc.) breaks down, especially due to temperature weathering.
Hornblende (amphibole): name for a silicate mineral group containing aluminum, iron, magnesium and calcium. It is the main mineral of many crystalline rocks such as basalt, granite and gneiss.
Humus soil: soil layers formed from organic matter of plant or animal origin. See in detail under humus,
Lime (limestone): Various and diverse rocks with predominantly predominant calcium carbonate (carbonate lime) and in smaller proportions magnesium carbonate. The relatively hard limestone compared to chalk is widely used as a light gray or yellowish, rarely white mineral and sedimentary rock and is commonly referred to as lime. Limestone was formed as sedimentary rock in the sea by the deposition of calcareous shells and calcareous skeletons of small marine animals such as corals, shells or snails (shell limestone) and as a lake deposit (fresh water lime). Today, new lime is still emerging as a source excretion of water courses in limestone mountains or limestone caves with high solubility of dissolved lime (calcium hydrogen carbonate) in the water. Under atmospheric conditions at the source outlet, carbon dioxide escapes from the water, the solution balance shifts and excess calcium is precipitated as crystalline lime (sinter).
The effect of swelling mosses creates a porous limestone with cavities (travertine). A soft form of limestone is the chalk (see below). A high pressure recrystallized limestone is the major harder marble. In calcareous soils is iron poor plant availability, so that chlorotic phenomena are common because of iron deficiency. Especially old vines with well-developed root system can provide special qualities. Calcareous soils usually produce wines with good acidity. In the European vineyard soil limestones come especially in slopes more common. Especially in cooler winegrowing areas, the skeletal, quickly heatable and well-ventilated lime soils are appreciated, but require lime-tolerant documents, Known limestone areas are the Spanish Jerez where on the famous Albariza floor the grapes for the sherry grow, as well as in France Burgundy and Champagne, See for "lime as a nutrient" also under calcium,
Karst: A rock and landscape formation of water-soluble carbonate rocks such as limestone or gypsum, which has formed over thousands of years through erosion and corrosion processes. The carbon dioxide of the air dissolved in the rainwater as carbonic acid as well as the plant acids released from lichens and roots corrode the surfaces of these limestones, lime dissolves in the outflowing water, the surface is washed out and slowly removed. It comes to the characteristic karst phenomena on the surface. It forms typical furrows and gutters (carts) in which the water flows. In the porous rock strata the water seeps and over time eats larger cavities into it, so that widely branched underground caves and deep collapse shafts (sinkholes) form. These expand more and more, so that finally the above-ground precipitation completely seeped and accumulates in the underground cavities, where form underground river systems.
For millennia, lime rendzines (Rendzina = shallow soil) and Terra Rossa soils formed, consisting of a humus-rich fertile A horizon or a fossil ferrous B horizon over skeletal limestone. There are numerous karst areas worldwide. Significant for viticulture are, for example, the Swabian-Franconian Alb, large areas in southern France, Anatolia-Turkey and the northern part of the Yugoslav Karst lying near Trieste, the Kalkhochland stretching from Istria to Albania along the Dalmatian coast. See under Carso (Friuli Venezia Giulia) and Teran (Kras-Slovenia) with the special, iron-rich soil type Terra Rossa,
Keuper: The name goes back to a sandstone found near Coburg in Upper Franconia (Bavaria). This rock, which occurs mainly in Central Europe, is divided into three geological temporal areas with regard to its formation. The upper Keuper (Rhät) contains many fossil fossils in contrast to the other two species. The middle keuper (gypsum keuper) consists of sandstone, gypsum deposits, clayey silt and colored marl. In the lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper) the rocks are often covered by thick loess and loess loam. Keuper soils usually have a high water storage capacity. The term is used mainly in Germany, where Keuper in to bathe. Franconia. Moselle. palatinate and Wuerttemberg occurs.
Gravel: The term is derived from the Middle High German Kis (coarse grained stony sand) and refers to a collection of small stones round ground in running waters, the pebbles. Often gravel is also described by the terms "stone" or "stony" or "stony ground". The fraction of the gravel has a defined grain size of 2-63 mm in the sub-fractions fine gravel, middle gravel and coarse gravel. The water-grinded pebbles often consist only of the hard silica (quartz), but also other hard rocks. The water storage capacity of pebble soils is minimal, so the roots of the roots must be deeply rooted to get water and nutrients. Such soils in connection with alluvium are for example in the French area Médoc (Bordeaux) prevailing.
Kimmeridge: Gray-colored, lime-mixed clay. The name derives from the homonymous southern English town, where this earth was discovered. The chablis from the French Burgundy grows on such a clay-mixed soil.
Conglomerate : Latin name for accumulation, aggregation, mixture or mixture. In the geology This is understood to mean the clastic sedimentary rock (derived from the rubble of other rocks), which consists of more than 50% rounded mineral or rock pieces of more than two millimeters and which are firmly cemented by a calcareous, siliceous or clayey binder (putty gravel). In angular components, the sediment is called "breccia". See also below for sediment.
Chalk: White, fine-grained, soft limestone (see above), which breaks down into a white powder and often contains flint. Due to the large porosity is a good one water discharge Therefore, in the vineyard, chalk is much appreciated as a subsoil. The roots of the vine can easily penetrate such soil and thus reach the underlying water reservoirs. In pure form, however, a chalk soil is rather rare. The most famous wine growing area with this type of soil is the Champagne where on the with Craie à bélemnites designated bottom of the champagne grows.
Loam: This is defined as a mixture of sand (63 μm - 2 mm), silt (2 - 63 μm) and clay (<2 μm). Depending on the mixing ratio, a distinction is made between sandy, silty or clayey loam. Loam is a weathering product of solid or loose rock (loess) and was often displaced and mixed by wind and water erosion. Depending on the origin, a distinction is made between alluvial loam, mountain loam or hanging clay loam, glacial loam (glacier), loess loam, alluvial loam and silt loam. The clay colored yellowish by iron compounds is normally already decalcified, but may contain lime if the weathering conditions are not very advanced. Such soils give full-bodied, strong wines. See also below for sound.
Lignite: brown coal with a clearly visible wood structure; it is between coal and peat. The very fertile material is used in the Champagne mined as natural fertilizer.
Llicorella: Common name in Spain for a small-leaved slate, as it is in the area Priorato occurs (see also below for slate).
Loess (Loess): A dusty sediment consisting of 50% quartz and containing up to 35% of calcium carbonate and dolomite, depending on its source. In addition small quantities of feldspars, mica and clay minerals occur. As sediment transported by the wind, the silt fraction in the loess dominates with 70-80%, in smaller proportions fine sand and clay are added. The proportion of sand in the mixture can be as much as 20% (sandy loess), while the sediment, which has already been redeployed by water, increases the clay fraction to almost 30% (clayey loess), while the proportion of sand in transport largely fell by the wayside. The dust-rich loess particles originate in Europe from the rocks of the glacial glaciers and during the last ice ages were blown out of the low-vegetation glacier foreland and blown away over a wide area.
In wind-soaked hollows and in the lee of hilltops, the particles were deposited again in the treeless glacial tundra landscape. This explains the uniform sorting and the still predominantly angular shape of the rock particles. The initially loosely superimposed loess grains were subsequently cemented after deposition with dissolved in water and re-precipitated calcium carbonate, so that the particles are encrusted by a stabilizing limestone skeleton, which receives the finely porous structure of the loess rock. This results in the high stability of the vertical loess walls of primary loess at Weinterrassen and in sunken paths. This fertile, water-storing and deeply rooted soil type produces full-bodied, storable, but rather low-acid wines. Loess soils are quite common in Germany and Austria.
Melaphyr: fine-grained, sometimes porphyritically formed effusion rock. The name derives from the Greek "mélas" (dark, black), where the color may be black, purple or reddish brown. Many melaphyre (the so-called melaphyr almond stones) are rich in bladder cavities filled with secondary mineral formations such as calcite, delessite (the chlorite-like mineral of greenish color), quartz, and agate. These rocks come for example in soils on the Saar (growing area Moselle ) and the Near in front.
Marl: Gray or yellowish sedimentary rock, half of which consists of clay and lime. It originated where clay particles were deposited on the fossil seabed with simultaneous lime precipitation. Mergel soils are fertile, heavy soils with high PH value, These soils produce wines with good acidity. They come in French law and at the Rhone as well as in the German growing area Rheinhessen in front.
Molasse: name for the erosion material of a mountain in the late phase of its formation. The term derives from the French word for "very soft" and was then applied to fine-grained soft sandstones. Today it is used worldwide for sediments in the foothills of a mountain rising in the context of mountain building. In contrast, flysch is deposited only during orogeny.
Moraine: name (French moraine = boulders) for a rock debris, which the spreading glaciers have pushed during the last ice age in front of him. After their retreat, the cobbles remained standing as slowly weathered rocks in the landscape. These soils were mostly gravel, interspersed with larger and smaller stones. A distinction is made between migrating moraines (carried by glaciers) and stacked grains (deposited after the melting of the ice).
Muschelkalk: See above under lime.
Nagelfluh: A young conglomerate rock of lime, feldspar and quartz, whose gravel and cobbles are cemented by grains of sand. The name is derived from the nailhead-like from the "Fluh" (rock face) looking out gravel. This type of rock occurs in the northern (Swiss and southern German) Alpine foothills, for example in the Oberallgäu and in the famous location Dézaley in the canton of Vaud.
Ooid / Oolite: name for almost perfectly round, calcareous to pea-sized particles, which are formed by Kalkanlagerung in moving waters. Larger particles of the same kind are called pisoids. Ooids can consist of various minerals, the most common being calcicoids. A rock formed by cementing ooids is called oolite (eg pea stone, ironoolite, kieseloolite, Rogenstein).
Opok (Opak, Opock, Opouk, Oupok): In the Styria and Slovenia (Opoka) Common name (also Aubock, Onpock, Opak, Opock, Oupok) for solidified, tegelartiges sediment (Staublehm). Mostly it is marl, clay and silt (see also above under clay). In Styrian viticulture, the name is mainly in Deutschlandsberg and Leibnitz in the west and südsteiermark especially for marl soils of vineyards, but also used for the wines grown there.
Ortstein / Orterde: A hardened, cement-hard, and water-retaining soil layer in the subsoil of the B horizon of acidic Podsol soils (see below), caused by leaching of iron and aluminum compounds as well as humic substances (organic substances) from the topsoil and their crusty Re-precipitation occurred in depth. Less consolidated is called this layer Orterde.
Palus: In Bordeaux common name (from lat. Swamp) for the deep alluvial soil of clay with high water table, as he near the rivers Dordogne. Garonne and the mouth funnel Gironde occurs. These wines have rather mediocre quality and the areas are mostly not declared as AC.
Pelosol: clay rich loose rock that comes from different clay stones. An old term is colored clay and marl soil or Latvian soil. A high proportion of the clay are special swelling clay minerals that store and expand free water. The soil can therefore store a lot of water, in humid climates waterlogging is favored. However, much of it is too tightly bound to be available to the plants. For viticulture, these soils are only partially suitable.
Perlite: Powdery, glossy effusion (volcanic glass), which is also used as a layer filter in the filtration used by wine.
Phyllite: Also known as phyllite schist, mica schist or uranium schist, the rock is a crystalline slate of greenish-gray color and silky luster. It consists mainly of sericite (light mica, fine-grained muscovite) and quartz, as well as mica, feldspar, chlorite, tourmalines and iron oxides. It is formed by metamorphosis from clay shales and is eventually converted to mica schist.
Plastosol: Plastic clay (also Tegel), see below for clay.
Podsol: This rock is produced in areas with high rainfall and relatively low temperatures. The name means "ash bottom", an old name is "bleaching earth". The parent rocks are often low in calcium and magnesium and slightly permeable, such as sands or weathered sandstones. Podsols are often produced under vegetation that forms nutrient-poor residues and thus promotes a raw hummus cover. Podsolation is an acidification of the soil. At the same time, aluminum and iron are released by chemical reactions and transferred to the subsoil by seepage water.
Porphyry: Collective term (Greek: purple) for various volcanic eruptions of magma with large crystals in a fine-grained, glassy matrix. The term applies only to the microstructure and not to a particular rock. Such rocks have a high proportion of silica, a small amount PH value and the characteristic porphyric structure. Porphyrite, on the other hand, refers to basic (siliceous) very hard rocks belonging to the andesite / basalt family. Such soils give rather low-acid wines. They are for example in South-Tirol around Bolzano and in the German wine-growing area Near encountered. Porphyry granite is a transitional form between granite and porphyry.
Pudding stone: name (French poudingue) for large aggregates (conglomerates) of pebbles, flint and quartz, which are connected for example by quartz mass. Such a type of soil heats up very quickly and has excellent drainage.
Quartz: The second most abundant earth crust mineral after the feldspar. He often forms crystals of great variety of shapes and colors. Pure quartz consists exclusively of silicon dioxide, which is used for glass production. As a mineral, it is very resistant to erosion and weathering and is included in many types of rock as weathering-resistant component (for example, the white grus in gneiss, granite and quartz sand). It contains no plant nutrients and only plays a role in soil structure. Quartz soils are generally infertile, but have a heat-storing effect. Due to the relatively high PH value grow on it low-acid wines.
Ranker: shallow, dry AC soil over low-lime to lime-free silicate rocks. Due to the low water retention capacity, it can tend to dehydrate, but heats up easily. In a temperate climate with sufficient rainfall this can be for certain grape varieties such. For example, the Riesling can be an excellent soil.
Rendzina: A shallow, often stony AC soil with a partly powerful humus layer over the still largely unweathered, but skeletal, calcareous starting rock. (The name comes from the Polish). The dry soils are easy to heat, well ventilated, strongly revived and fertile. With sufficient humus coverage, enough rainfall and not too extreme lime contents, the yield of heat-loving grapes is an excellent soil. These soils occur mainly on Muschelkalk, Dogger and dolomite, for example in the German wine-growing regions of Baden, Franconia, Rhenish Hesse and Württemberg. As Pararendzina AC soils are referred to lime-rich loose rocks such as loess. These have a higher one Water storage capacity, It is believed that Rendzinen long term to the ferrous Terra Rossa soils develop.
Rigosol: The one by the Rigolen, that is to say a soil type originating from a special Umgrabetechnik is the actual, man-made vineyard soil. The originally stratified soil horizons are dug up to one meter deep or plowed and mixed up. The aim is to improve the physicochemical properties.
Untreated (Syrosem): name for a relatively young, still little weathered and mostly mechanically crushed, pure rock bottom. He has only marginally trained A or B horizons. Due to the physical and chemical weathering of the raw material, the stage of the raw soil is often exceeded quickly and more differentiated soil types are formed. With sufficient water supplies in the subsoil, many grape varieties thrive here well to excellent.
Red Earth: See below Terra Rossa,
Rotliegend (es): Conspicuously red colored rock strata, which are derived from the geological period of the Rotliegend in which they were formed. The red coloration is caused by finely distributed hematite scales (red ironstone) and refers to the deposition in hot climates. Rotliegendes is an old miner's expression. The soil is made of calcareous clay, siltstone and sandstone. He has only a limited water storage capacity, but has a good ventilation. The rooting of the deeper rock is difficult. The term is particularly in the German cultivation areas palatinate and Rheinhessen for the there occurring vineyard soils common. These come in the form of red slate especially in the "red slope" within the as Rhine front designated area before.
Sand: Weathering product of hard rocks as a defined particle size fraction between 63 μm and 2 mm. Most grains of sand have a high content of quartz and feldspar (see above). In pure sand, there may be a lack of trace element zinc come. The water-permeable, dry and often barren soil produces fragrant, but low-acid wines. An advantage of sandy soils is that the phylloxera can not stick here. Therefore, during the phylloxera catastrophe in the 19th century, such vineyards were largely spared. An example is the Portuguese area Colares, See also under Sandweinpension,
Slate: Pressed sedimentary rock that has been formed under the influence of high pressure from clay and mud deposits in the deep sea and has formed from more or less horizontally deposited sediment layers. That's why you can easily break slate into slabs. Geologically, it is a group of metamorphic rocks such as amphibole schist, glaucous shard (blue-schist), garnet-shale and slate. As a dark rock slate has an excellent heat storage capacity and is therefore ideally suited for viticulture, especially in cooler climatic areas. There is weathering to different clay minerals. This mineral-rich soil type occurs, for example, in many German growing areas and is ideal for the Riesling suitable. The slate soil gives light, elegant and racy wines. See also above at Phyllit.
Silt : See below at Silt.
Gravel: Scree deposits in the form of stones of varying sizes, which are mostly caused by weathering of rocks. In part, such deposits were also transported by glaciers, rivers and landslides and gradually rounded off. Round gravel is referred to as gravel, smaller edged stones as grit and larger edged stones as rubble.
Black Soil: See below at Chernozem.
Alluvial: See above in alluvium.
Sediment : Coal or heel created by sedimentation that has been removed elsewhere and then solidified. A distinction is made between the three groups of clastic (by fragmentation), organogenic (caused by chemical processes) and biogenic (caused by activity of living things) sedimentary rocks.
Silt: name (German silt) for loose rock from the rubble of other rocks, which is in the size between clay and sand (particle size range of 0.002 mm to 0.063 millimeters). This type of soil is common in loess or alluvium, for example in the California area Napa Valley, See also above for conglomerate.
Stone / Rocky: See above at Gravel.
Tegel: Also known as plastosol plastic clay; see below for sound.
Terra Rossa : Especially in the Mediterranean (Southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East) occurring iron-containing soil type of bright red or brownish red in color.
Clay: Earthy, soft and easily deformed mass, consisting of flat, platy clay minerals. They are microscopically tiny crystal leaves (about one thousandth of a millimeter in size) whose electrostatic charge makes up the adhesive force of the material. The tiles lie close together like a pile of cards. If water is added, very thin films of water form between them (slippery, with a small amount of plastic = Tegel or Plastosol). The most important of the numerous clay minerals are beidellite, illite, kaolinite (basis for porcelain production), montmorillonite (also swelling clay, the most important constituent of bentonite, Weathering product from volcanic ash), pyrophyllite and vermiculite. Clay materials are formed, for example, when weathering feldspar of granite. At the same time, the two other constituents (quartz and mica) become free and mix with the clay minerals.
These weathering products have often been widely transported by water, wind and ice. Depending on the final deposit, the clay has different compositions. The more sand is contained as filler in the clay, the "leaner". A "fat" clay is about two-thirds clay minerals. At 50% clay content one speaks of loamy clay; clay loam contains only one third, loam around 20% and sandy loam 10% clay minerals. Clays have a high water storage capacity, but this is not always an advantage. They often have high content potassium on. Such soils give full-bodied, strong wines with good acidity.
Tonglimmerschiefer: See above under phyllite.
Travertine: Yellowish calcareous sinter or tufa formed by swelling of springs or springs; see above under lime and below under tuff.
Chernozem: The name derives from Russian and means black earth. In this type of soil is a strong, partly meter-thick humus layer directly above the starting material (for example, loess, sand, Tegel - see each above) and is the basis for a great fertility. In most cases, this soil has an optimal water balance and is excellent for the wine and agriculture (but can be misused for mass production). Lime-free soils are called paratschernosems.
Tuff: The word "lime tuff" (also called travertine or tufa tuff) refers to the deposition of limescale with air pockets, which makes it different from sinter. The porous structure is caused by swelling moss, whose lime precipitates on its plant body, until the mosses are completely clogged and die, while new mosses are already growing over it. Not to be confused is tuff with the tuff of volcanic origin, which consists of cooled and solidified, volcanic fly ash. Vulkantuff comes in for example in some Italian areas Pompeii in the vicinity of Mount Vesuvius and is particularly at the Loire common (many castles are built from it), where he is the base in the best locations such as the appellation Chinon (Loire). The red wine variety thrives particularly well on this soil Cabernet Franc,
Prehistoric rock: Rock formation of the Variscan mountains, whose formation ended around 300 million years ago at the end of the Carboniferous era in the transition to the Permian age, long before the formation of the Alps. Remains of the Variscan mountains are the Black Forest, the Vosges Mountains, the Harz and the Ore Mountains and also the crystal base of the Alps is formed from the "ancient rock" of the Variscan mountains. The main rocks of the prehistoric rock are plutonic rocks, such as granite, which was created as a result of the cooling and solidification of the earth's crust, or gneiss, which is a metamorphosed granite in the bedrock.
Effervescent rocks such as basalt, dolerite and porphyry formed after the end of volcanic activity during the cooling of the magma inside volcanic vents near the surface of the earth). Primeval soils, especially over gneiss, are often characterized by potash nature and produce fruity, spicy wines. This is the case in Austria Green Veltliner and at Riesling a gladly used indication on the label,
Volcanic rock: This occurs during a volcanic eruption, in which red-hot pumice from the interior of the earth (magma) escapes as lava to the earth's surface. It forms from the then cooled lava. Fiery wines with a rich bouquet thrive on this rather rare type of soil. Examples are the wines from the Italian region Campania, especially the DOC Vesuvio on the slopes of the volcano. Further occurrences exist in the German cultivation areas to bathe (Kaiserstuhl, Hohentwiel), Near and palatinate, in the Austrian wine-growing region Volcano country Styria with many volcanic cones, partly in Tokaj-Hegyalja, the territory of the Hungarian Tokaj, as well as in the area Finger Lake in the state new York,
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,