Next climate. vine one of the most important factors influencing wine quality. The various soil types have developed over millions of years through physical and chemical weathering of rocks and through the humification of organic matter (see also under geology ). In physical weathering, natural forces such as wind, water, heat, cold and ice initially cause the rock formations to be mechanically crushed into rubble and gravel. Strong temperature opposites, friction and shear forces as well as the frost blast caused by frozen water in rock fissures play an important role. Chemical weathering processes such as oxidation, Solution processes and acid attacks attack the mineral lattice structure of the rocks. Easily water-soluble minerals such as carbonates and Sulfate first dissolved, the rock slowly disintegrates into grus, sand, silt or clay. Every rock, even the hardest granite or quartz, will eventually crumble to dust, even if it takes millions of years.
Organic substances from plant residues, animal residues from worms, insects and small animals of all kinds, as well as dead ones microorganisms such as seaweed. bacteria and mushrooms are in humus converted. The essential for plant growth nitrogen compounds (Nitrate, ammonium) as well as others nutrient released. Fungi and bacteria play the main role in the decomposition of organic residues such as wood, leaves, roots or animal corpses. Insects such as floor mites are important because of their crushing feeding activities. Earthworms play a crucial role in soil loosening, mixing and the formation of stable clay-humus complexes, which are formed in the earthworm intestine and excreted as faeces. These contribute to the structural stability of the soil and can bind easily water-soluble nutrients and thus make them available to the plants for longer.
Each floor consists of floor horizons (soil layers) with special properties. They are almost always horizontal and can be seen in the soil profile (vertical section of the soil in an excavation). The sequence is the essential criterion for determining the soil type. From top to bottom, a soil is divided into an organic soil horizon or HLO horizon (peat from plant residues, litter) and a three-part mineral horizon. These are A-horizon (mineral topsoil with a lively, humus-rich layer), B-horizon (mineral subsoil with a low-humus layer with fine soil already chemically weathered to sand, silt or clay) and C-horizon (little changed starting rock with physical weathering). Deep mechanical tillage mixes horizons. Depending on the climate and Erosional action the A or B horizon may also be missing or only marginal.
In a vineyard, the horizons have usually already been mixed up by tillage. Rock subsoil, initial soil, tillage, fertilization and water balance with a balanced ratio between the Water storage capacity and the water discharge shape alongside the local climate (Microclimate or layered climate) the location vineyard and give each vineyard location the typical and unmistakable character of the origin, The duration of the growth cycle, the orientation of the exposition (Solar radiation) and the local climate on the slope, the existing soil conditions, the Humus- and lime content and the water supply affect the choice of the most appropriate varieties,
The well-known geologist and wine book author James E. Wilson aptly writes in his book "Terroir - Keys to Wine": "The soil is the soul of the grapevine" . However, the direct connection of rock, grape variety and wine character today is likely to be more rooted due to the uniform use documents with strong mineral fertilization and the use of new wine-growing cellar methods are only marginally pronounced. In the formerly sparingly and mostly organically fertilized vineyards with their old, ungrafted planted and often deeply rooted vines, this relationship certainly came into its own much more.
The French, in particular, recognized the importance of the interplay of climate-rock-soil-location-microclimate and grape variety very early on and in the creation of the term terroir elevated to their philosophy, so to speak. The terroir with the suitable grape varieties is used in the classification of the wine-growing regions as Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) legally defined. This is a clear difference to the philosophy, for example, in Germany and Austria, where great importance (not too much) is attached to the location of the grape variety and the vine variety obtained from it.
It is of great advantage if the Rebstock must drill its roots as deep as possible into the ground. Due to the ability of floors as ion exchanger To act, i.e. to exchange nutrient salts in the soil solution for the protons (H +) and anions (OH-) released by the plant, the supply of the roots with essential nutrients and trace elements made possible at all. The minerals ingested can be found in the total extract of a wine again. The vine needs around twenty essential trace elements and the main nutrients to thrive. As a permanent crop, it is less dependent on fertile soils than annual crops. There are often locations with very poor soils on which high-quality wines grow. However, this does not mean that the less nutrients are available in the soil, the better the wine quality.
A lack of nitrogen and amino acids in the must yeasts in the fermentation hinder and Gärfehler cause. Among other things, this can be due to the wine error UTA (atypical age tone). Rather, the harmonious composition of the nutrients in the soil, the availability of water and nutrients as well as the state of aggregation and the ability to be rooted are important for the suitability of a soil for viticulture. Through plant or soil tests using EUF method a lack of nutrients can be recognized and possibly caused by fertilization be resolved. A comprehensive classification or determination of the soil quality for agricultural use in general or specifically for viticulture is carried out using Bonitur,
With lime-rich soils pH values over 8 makes the high difficult Calcium level in the ground the absorption of other double positively charged ions such as Nitrogen Compounds. magnesium or the trace elements boron. iron. manganese or zinc, so that lime chlorosis or other physiological deficiency symptoms can occur, even with normally sufficient nutrient levels in the soil. Especially at the beginning of the growth cycle, the nitrogen content (in the form of nitrate and ammonium) in the soil should be sufficient. The basic rule is that alkaline (alkaline) soils with a high pH value above 8 (e.g. lime, chalk and marl soils with mostly a high proportion of calcium and magnesium) result in wines with a higher acidity, while acidic soils with a low pH value less than 6 to 4 (for example granite, quartz sand) cause wines with lower acidity. Experiments with increased amounts of potassium have shown that vines react with an increased malic acid production. To compensate for the increased influx of positive potassium ions, the plant produces negatively charged acid anions (malic acid). However, irrespective of the vintage or maturity-related acid values, other causes also contribute to the acidity in the wine.
A good Weingarten soil should be lean, medium to deep, well aerated, water-permeable and not compacted, rich but not too fat, not too humus rich but rich in mineral components. The best locations are so-called slopes, because this creates an almost vertical angle of incidence for the sun's rays in late summer, so that the maximum amount of radiation can be used. The best location on the slope is the calm, concave middle (belly, navel, kidney), where the highest temperature sums can be reached and the soil is usually well drained. Soil color also plays an important role, because dark soils absorb the heat of the sun more quickly and comprehensively, while light soils reflect light so that such soils do not heat up as quickly and as strongly. The suitability of an area for viticulture is called Weinbauwürdigkeit which can be determined using a criteria catalog.
Alberese: Italian name for the weathered sandstone found, for example, in the best Chianti areas (see also under Galestro).
Alluvium / Alluvion (alluvial soil ): Alluvial sediment washed up and deposited by water. The geological name for the floating is "fluviatil". Alluvium is also another name for the Holocene, the youngest geological age that has lasted since the end of the last ice age some 10,000 years ago. Alluvial soils are mostly fine-grained, very fertile soil types that arise in the flood and mouth area of rivers. They consist of soil particles that have been washed up and sedimented when water soothes.
Depending on the sinking rate of the soil particles carried in the water and the flow rate of the flood, they consist of clayey mud, silt, sand or in the immediate bank area with high runoff speeds and strong erosion dynamics of gravel and pebbles. Despite the predominantly rocky and sandy nature, such as in French Médoc, these floors are very suitable for viticulture. The secret of the locations there are the clay lenses deposited in various floods and covered with sand and gravel inside the alluvial gravel terraces, which can store water. Such layers of clay are literally sought by the vine roots.
Amphibolite: Mostly black over gray to dark green rock, which is the result of the metamorphic conversion of basalt (see below) under high pressure and temperature conditions. It consists of up to 50% representatives of the amphibole group such as hornblende (see below) or Tschermakit, and up to 40% from other minerals such as garnet and quartz, as well as ores such as magnetite and pyrite.
Aeolian: named after the Greek wind god Aeolus, phenomena caused by the wind. Aeolian transport triggers fine material such as loess, silt (silt) or clay from the raw material, such as loose rock, and transports it over long distances by the wind. Aeolian weathering refers to the removal of rock by sand grains, fine gravel, etc., which are moved by the wind, with the effect of a sandblaster. This creates an Aeolian weathering soil.
Arkose: The geological term describes a pink to reddish, coarse-grained sandstone with a high proportion of feldspar, which occurs mainly in dry, arid areas. It leads to the coarser granite stones.
Alluvial soils: Soils created from river deposits that are periodically flooded. Such come in, for example Danube-. Moselle- and Rheinauen in front. When they are no longer flooded, they develop into brown earth and para brown earth. These soils are mostly nutrient-rich, biologically active and fertile.
Basalt: Basic effusion rock (cooled magma) consisting of feldspar, hornblende, olivine and magnetite. It contains a lot of lime and soda and is rich in minerals. The hard, slowly weathering rock forms good soils and produces wines with an appealing acidity.
Pumice (pumice stone, pumice stuff): The porous, glassy volcanic rock is formed by gas-rich volcanic eruptions, in which the lava is foamed by water vapor and carbon dioxide. It is not chemically different from other lava, but is much lighter due to the trapped air. The color varies from black and with increasing air content to gray to white. The term Bimstuff refers to the grain size, at least 75% must consist of volcanic ash. Pumice soils have a good water storage capacity and are very suitable for viticulture. You can find them consistently on the Greek island Santorini that arose from a volcanic explosion. The obsidian is similar to pumice, but contains much less carbon dioxide. See also under Canava and down by volcanic rock.
Blue slate : See below for slate.
Boulbènes: name used in Bordeaux for a very fine, siliceous floor. He comes on the plateau of the area Entre-deux-Mers in front.
Brown earth: These ABC soils develop primarily over low-lime but base-rich rocks such as granite, gneiss, greywacke, clay slate and clayey sandstone. It was formed under humid climatic conditions from humus-rich topsoils on low-limestone silicate rock (tendrils) with deciduous and mixed forest cover. The brown color in the B horizon is caused by iron oxides, which are formed during the chemical weathering of iron-containing silicates. The acids released by the tree roots contributed greatly to the deep weathering of the B horizon. The lime content, stone content and water balance of brown earth can differ greatly. Depending on the nature, this can be an excellent soil for viticulture.
Para brown earth differs from brown earth in that clay particles have been moved from the upper to the lower layers. This is a process that occurs when soil is acidified. Lime solution removes cemented lime structures, so that the released clay particles are washed away with the leachate into deeper layers of the soil. Para brown earths mostly originated from Pararendzinen. Para brown and brown soils are the most common soils in humid Europe. Clay and loess parabra brown earths are among the most fertile soils.
Buntsandstein : Brightly colored, mostly red sandstone with partly clayey flooding. The Buntsandstein was created from the rubble from the mountains of ancient times. It was deposited in a dry semi-desert climate in a large basin (Germanic basin) in the middle of today's Europe and later overlaid by sedimentary rocks such as the Jurassic limestone or floss.
Iron: See below Terra Rossa and further down at Rotliegendes.
Feldspar: Complex silicate compounds of white and reddish minerals, which make up about 60% of the composition of the earth's crust. These contain iron, potassium, calcium and sodium. There are three main groups: potassium feldspar (Adular, Sanidin), soda lime feldspar (Albit, Periklin, Anorthit) and Mikrolin. Weathering creates base-rich clay minerals that can release mineral-bound ions as nutrients to the vine. Feldspar is one of the three main components of granite and gneiss - see below.
Flint: The gray to black colored rock (flint, silex) of the finely crystalline quartz type chalcedony with splintery, shell-like fracture has a white, porous surface structure. It comes from silicic marine life (diatoms, radiolaria = sea plankton - see also under diatomaceous ). This soil gives typical wines with a taste of flint like the French one Pouilly-Fumé,
fluviatil: worn away or deposited by running water - the result is an Alluvion or Alluvium soil (alluvial soil); see above.
Flysch: Fossil-poor sandstones as well as marl and clay slate, which arose from the rubble on the edge of a mountain. In the narrower sense, these are the rocks from the time when the Alps began to emerge, which can be found in the Northern Alps from the Austrian Vienna Woods to Western Switzerland. The slippery rock creates a landscape characterized by gentle, round hills. The area is a typical example Collio Goriziano, the typical soil there is called "Flysch di Cormòns" after the place. Flysch rock with predominant quartz sandstone also comes on Bisamberg near Wien (Austria).
Galestro: Famous blue-gray limestone slate soil from the best growing areas of the Tuscany, common in the area Chianti Classico (see also Alberese above). A white wine was also named after the floor.
Garrigue : Mediterranean shrub heath formation on shallow soils, especially in France (e.g. Châteauneuf-du-Pape ), Italy (Sardinia) and North Africa is common.
Loam or Berglehm: This occurs in mountainous and hilly areas. It represents the loamy weathering bark of the upcoming rock. Such loams are interspersed with rock fragments. See also below for clay.
Gypsum: Common mineral in the class of water-containing sulfates (calcium sulfate). As a rule, it is colorless or white, but can have a yellowish, reddish, gray or brown color due to various additives. A common crystalline species is alabaster. Geologically, gypsum was created by crystallization from calcium sulfate-oversaturated sea water. It is often found in clays and marl.
Gleye: Soil type above a groundwater layer about 1.3 meters below ground. Gley soils can often be found in floodplain forests, in depressions and on rivers. They are characterized by a rust-red oxidation horizon and the underlying gray-pale reduction horizon. The reductive processes in the low-oxygen groundwater horizon lead to the dissolution of iron and manganese, which rises with the groundwater and is oxidized rust-red in the oxidation horizon. Root growth is generally strongly inhibited in constantly wet, low-oxygen soil horizons, so that such soils are not suitable for viticulture. Pseudogleye arise when soil compaction due to a bad water deduction the rainwater cannot seep away in the subsoil and a waterlogged rainwater horizon forms, in which the roots rot. Such soils are called waterlogged soils.
Gneiss: Medium to coarse-grained metamorphites, which have been created under high pressure and temperature effects by conversion from other rocks, as well as crystalline slates in gray, green-gray, red-gray and red-brown. The name derives from the old German "gene" (deaf solid rock between the veins). The main components are feldspar (orthoclase, mostly over 20%), quartz and mica (biotite, muscovite, fuchsite). It can also contain cordierite, epidote, garnet, hornblende, sillimanite and others. A distinction is made between ortho-gneiss from converted solidification rock (magma) and para-gneiss from converted sedimentary rock.
Granite: The most common solidification rock (pluton). The slightly acidic weathering rock was created by cooling or slowly crystallizing silicon dioxide-rich magma at very great depths. The main components are quartz, feldspar and mica and often also hornblende. The soil results in mineral and rather less acidic wines. The northern part of the French Beaujolais or the Ortenau in the German growing region to bathe consists of such granite weathering soils.
Grauwacke: Rubble sediments made from dark gray to gray-green very hard sandstone with changing contents of quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite and other minerals, as well as rock fragments of clay and pebble slate. Grauwacke is often used for the production of paving stones. This soil is ideal for viticulture. It comes from the German growing regions Ahr. Moselle. middle Rhine and Rheingau in front. The famous 132 meter high Loreley rock near St. Goarshausen on the Middle Rhine consists of Grauwacke.
Grus (creepy): Small angular-edged and brittle pieces of rock with a grain size of 2 to 6 mm, which are caused by weathering. In the case of the so-called scouring or grizzling, rock (granite, slate, etc.) disintegrates particularly due to temperature weathering.
Hornblende (Amphibol): Name for a silicate mineral group, which contains aluminum, iron, magnesium and calcium. It forms the main mineral of many crystalline rocks such as basalt, granite and gneiss.
Humus soil: layers of earth formed from organic components with plant or animal origin. See in detail under humus,
Lime (limestone): Various and diverse rocks with mostly a dominant proportion of calcium carbonate (carbonate lime) and, to a lesser extent, magnesium carbonate. The limestone, which is comparatively hard compared to chalk, is widespread as a light gray or yellowish, rarely white mineral and sedimentary rock and is commonly referred to as lime in common usage. Limestone was formed as sedimentary rock in the sea through the deposition of lime shells and lime-rich skeletons of small marine animals such as corals, mussels or snails (mussel limestone) and as sea deposits (fresh water lime). Today, new lime is still formed as a source excretion of water courses in limestone mountains or in limestone caves with a high proportion of dissolved lime (calcium hydrogen carbonate) in the water. Under atmospheric conditions at the source outlet, carbon dioxide escapes from the water, the solution balance shifts and excess calcium is precipitated as crystalline lime (sinter).
The action of spring moss creates a porous limestone with cavities (travertine). A soft form of limestone is chalk (see below). Limestone recrystallized under high pressure is the much harder marble. In lime-rich soils iron poorly available to plants, so that chlorotic phenomena due to iron deficiency are common. Especially old vines with well-developed roots can deliver special qualities. Limestone soils generally produce wines with good acidity. Limestone is particularly popular in European vineyard soil slopes more often. Especially in cooler wine-growing regions, the skeleton-rich, quickly heatable and well-ventilated limestone soils are valued, but require limescale-tolerant ones documents, Known limestone areas are the Spanish ones Jerez where on the famous Albariza floor the grapes for the sherry grow, as well as in France Burgundy and Champagne, See also under “Lime as a nutrient” calcium,
Karst: A rock and landscape formation made of water-soluble carbonate rocks such as limestone or gypsum, which has been formed over thousands of years through erosion and corrosion processes. The carbon dioxide in the air, dissolved in the rainwater as carbonic acid, as well as the plant acids released by lichens and roots corrode the surfaces of these limestone rocks, lime dissolves in the draining water, the surface is washed out and slowly removed. The characteristic karst phenomena appear on the surface. Typical furrows and troughs (carts) form in which the water flows off. The water seeps into the porous layers of rock and, over time, eats larger cavities, so that extensive underground caves and deep collapse shafts (sinkholes) are formed. These are expanding more and more so that eventually the above ground precipitation completely seeped away and collected in the underground cavities, where underground river systems are formed.
Over thousands of years, lime rendzines (rendzina = shallow soil) and Terra Rossa soils were formed, which consist of a humus-rich, fertile A horizon and a fossil, iron-containing B horizon over skeleton-rich limestone. There are numerous karst areas worldwide. The Swabian-Franconian Jura, large areas in southern France, Anatolia-Turkey and the northern part of the Yugoslav Karst near Trieste, which stretches along the Dalmatian coast from Istria to Albania, are important for winegrowing. See under Carso (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) and Teran (Kras-Slovenia) with the special, iron-containing soil type Terra Rossa,
Keuper: The name goes back to a sandstone found near Coburg in Upper Franconia (Bavaria). This rock, which occurs mainly in Central Europe, is divided into three geological temporal areas. In contrast to the two other species, the upper Keuper (Rhät) contains many fossil fossils. The middle keuper (gypsum keuper) consists of sandstone, gypsum deposits, clayey silt and colored marl. In the lower Keuper (Lettenkeuper) the rocks are often covered by mighty loess and loess loam. Keuper soils usually have a high water storage capacity. The term is used mainly in Germany, where Keuper in to bathe. Franconia. Moselle. palatinate and Wuerttemberg occurs.
Gravel: The term is derived from Middle High German kis (coarse-grained, stony sand) and refers to a collection of small stones, the pebbles, which are ground in flowing water. Gravel is also often described with the terms "stone" or "stony" or "stony soil". The fraction of the gravel has a defined grain size of 2-63 mm in the sub-fractions fine gravel, medium gravel and coarse gravel. The water-cut pebbles often consist only of the hard silicon dioxide (quartz), but also other hard rocks. The water storage capacity of gravel soils is minimal, so the plant roots must be deeply rooted in order to get water and nutrients. Such soils in connection with alluvium are, for example, in the French area Médoc (Bordeaux) predominant.
Kimmeridge: Gray-colored clay mixed with lime. The name derives from the southern English town of the same name where this earth was discovered. The chablis from French Burgundy grows on such a clay-mixed soil.
Conglomerate : Latin term for accumulation, agglomeration, batch or mixture. In the geology is understood as the clastic (from the rubble of other rocks) sedimentary rock, which consists of more than 50% of rounded mineral or rock pieces of more than two millimeters and which are firmly cemented by a chalky, pebbly or clayey binder (putty). In the case of angular components, the sediment is called "breccia". See also Sediment below.
Chalk: White, fine-grained, soft limestone (see above) that crumbles into a white powder and often contains flint. Due to the large porosity is a good one water discharge chalk is very valued in the vineyard as an underbody. The roots of the vine can easily penetrate such a soil and thus reach the water reservoirs below. In pure form, a chalk floor is rather rare. The most famous wine region with this type of soil is the Champagne where on the with Craie à bélemnites designated floor of the champagne grows.
Loam: This is defined as a mixture of sand (63 µm - 2mm), silt (2 - 63 µm) and clay (<2 µm). Depending on the mixing ratio, a distinction is made between sandy, silty or clayey loam. Loam is a weathering product from solid or loose rock (loess) and has often been shifted and mixed by wind and water erosion. Depending on the origin, a distinction is made between meadow clay, mountain clay or hanging clay, bed clay (glacier), loess clay, alluvial clay and silt clay. The clay, colored yellow-brown by iron compounds, is usually already decalcified, but can still contain lime if weathering is not very advanced. Such soils result in full-bodied, powerful wines. See also below for sound.
Lignite: brown coal with a clearly visible wood structure; it lies between coal and peat. The very fertile material is in the Champagne degraded as natural fertilizer.
Llicorella: Common name in Spain for a small-leaved slate, such as that used in the sector Priorato occurs (see also below for slate).
Loess: A dust sediment that consists of 50% quartz and, depending on its origin, contains up to 35% calcium carbonate and dolomite. In addition there are small amounts of feldspars, mica and clay minerals. As sediment transported by the wind, the silt fraction dominates in the loess with 70-80%, in smaller proportions fine sand and clay are added. The proportion of sand in the mixture can be up to 20% (sandy loess), while the floating loess already relocated by water increases the clay fraction to just under 30% (clay loess), while the sand proportion largely fell by the wayside during transport. The dust-fine loess particles originate in Europe from the rock abrasion of the glacial glaciers and during the last ice ages were blown out of the low-vegetation glacier foreland by the wind and blown away.
The particles were again deposited in the treeless ice age tundra landscape in calm valleys and in the slipstream of peaks. This explains the uniform sorting and the still predominantly angular shape of the rock particles. The loess grains, which initially lay loosely on top of one another, were subsequently cemented with calcium carbonate dissolved in water and precipitated again, so that the particles are encrusted with a stabilizing limestone skeleton that maintains the fine-pored structure of the loess rock. This results in the high stability of the vertical loess walls made of primary loess on wine terraces and in ravines. This fertile, water-storing and deeply rooted soil type results in full-bodied, storable, but rather low-acid wines. Loess soils are quite common in Germany and Austria.
Melaphyr: Fine-grained, sometimes porphyrically formed effusion rock. The name derives from the Greek "mélas" (dark, black), whereby the color can be black, violet or reddish brown. Many melaphyre (the so-called melaphyr almond stones) are rich in bladder cavities that are filled with secondary mineral formations such as calcite, delessite (greenish-colored mineral similar to chlorite), quartz and agate. These rocks come, for example, in soils on the Saar (cultivation area Moselle ) and the Near in front.
Marl: gray or yellowish sedimentary rock, each consisting of roughly half of clay and lime. It originated where clay particles were deposited on the fossil seabed with simultaneous lime precipitation. Marl soils are fertile, heavy soils with high PH value, These soils produce wines with good acidity. They come in French law and at the Rhone as well as in the German growing region Rheinhessen in front.
Molasse: Name for the material used to remove a mountain in the late phase of its formation. The term is derived from the French word for "very soft" and was then applied to fine-grained soft sandstones. Today it is used worldwide for sediments in the foothills of a mountain range that is part of the mountain formation. In contrast, Flysch is only deposited during mountain formation.
Moraine: Description (French: moraine = rubble) for a rubble that the spreading glaciers pushed during the last ice ages. After their withdrawal, the rubble remained in the landscape as slowly weathering rock ridges. These soils were mostly created using gravel, which is interspersed with larger and smaller stones. A distinction is made between moraine migrations (carried by glaciers) and moraine piles (deposited after the ice has melted).
Muschelkalk: See above under lime.
Nagelfluh: A young conglomerate rock made of lime, feldspar and quartz, the gravel and pebbles of which are cemented together by grains of sand. The name is derived from the nail heads that look out of the “Fluh” (rock face). This type of rock occurs in the northern (Swiss and southern German) Alpine foothills, for example in the Upper Allgäu and in the famous location Dézaley in the canton of Vaud.
Ooid / oolite: Description for almost perfectly round, chalky to pea-sized particles that are formed by lime deposits in moving water. Larger particles of the same type are called pisoids. Ooids can consist of various minerals, the most common being calcoids. A rock formed by cementing ooids is called oolite (e.g. pea stone, iron oolite, kieseloolite, roe stone).
Opok (Opak, Opock, Opouk, Oupok): In the Styria and Slovenia (Opoka) Common name (also Aubock, Onpock, Opak, Opock, Oupok) for solidified, tegel-like sediment (dust clay). Mostly it is marl, clay and silt (see also under clay above). In Styrian viticulture, the term is mainly used in Deutschlandsberg and Leibnitz in the west and südsteiermark used primarily for marl soils in vineyards, but also for the wines grown there.
Ortstein / Orterde: A solidified, cement-hard and water-stagnant layer of soil in the subsoil of the B-horizon of acidic Podsol soils (see below), which is washed out by iron and aluminum compounds and humic substances (organic substances) from the top soil and their crust-like Re-precipitation has occurred in depth. This layer is called less solidified.
Palus: The common name in Bordeaux (from the Latin swamp) for the deep alluvial soil made of clay with a high water table, as it is near the rivers Dordogne. Garonne and the mouth funnel Gironde occurs. These wines are of rather mediocre quality and the areas are mostly not declared as AC.
Pelosol: clay-rich loose rock that is created from various clay stones. An old name is colorful clay and marl floors or Latvian floors. A high proportion of the clay are special swellable clay minerals that store free water and expand in the process. The soil can therefore store a lot of water, in damp climates waterlogging is favored. However, a large part of it is too tightly bound to be available to the plants. These soils are only of limited suitability for viticulture.
Perlite: Powdery, shiny cast stone (volcanic glass), which is also used as a layer filter in the filtration used by wine.
Phyllite: The rock, also known as phyllite slate, mica slate or Urton slate, is a crystalline slate with a greenish-gray color and silky sheen. It mainly consists of serizite (light mica, fine-grained muscovite) and quartz, as well as mica, feldspar, chlorite, tourmalines and iron oxides. It results from metamorphosis from clay slate and is finally converted to mica slate.
Plastosol: plastic clay (also Tegel), see below under clay.
Podsol: This rock is formed in areas with high rainfall and relatively low temperatures. The name means "ash floor", an old name is "bleaching earth". The source rocks are often low in calcium and magnesium and, like sands or weathered sandstones, are slightly permeable. Podsole often arise under vegetation that forms nutrient-poor residues and thus promotes a raw humus cover. Pod insulation means acidification of the soil. At the same time, chemical reactions release aluminum and iron and move them into the sub-floor through leachate.
Porphyry: collective term (grch. Purple) for various volcanic effusion stones made of magma with large crystals in a fine-grained, glassy base. However, the term only applies to the microstructure and not to a specific rock. Such rocks have a high proportion of silica, a low one PH value and the characteristic porphyry structure. Porphyrite, on the other hand, is basic (very low-silica) rock that belongs to the andesite / basalt family. Such soils tend to produce low-acid wines. For example, they are in South-Tirol around Bolzano and in the German growing region Near encountered. Porphyry granite is a transition form between granite and porphyry.
Pudding stone: Description (French: poudingue) for large aggregations (conglomerates) of pebbles, flint and quartz, which are connected, for example, by quartz mass. Such a soil type heats up very quickly and has excellent drainage.
Quartz: the second most common mineral in the earth's crust after the feldspar. It often forms crystals of a wide variety of shapes and colors. Pure quartz consists exclusively of silicon dioxide, which is used for glass production. As a mineral, it is very resistant to erosion and weathering and can be found in many types of rock as the most weather-resistant component (for example, white grus in gneiss, granite and quartz sand). It contains no plant nutrients and only plays a role in the soil structure. Quartz floors are generally sterile, but have a heat-storing effect. Due to the relatively high PH value low-acid wines grow on it.
Ranker: Shallow, dry AC soil over low-lime to lime-free silicate rocks. Due to the low water storage capacity, it can tend to dry out, but heats up slightly. In a temperate climate with sufficient rainfall, this can be for certain grape varieties such. B. the Riesling can be an excellent soil.
Rendzina: A shallow, often rocky AC soil with a sometimes thick humus layer above the still largely weathered but skeletal, calcareous rock. (The name comes from the Polish). The dry soils are easy to heat, well ventilated, strongly invigorated and fertile. With sufficient humus overlay, sufficient rainfall and not too extreme lime contents, rendins are excellent soil for heat-loving grape varieties. These soils occur primarily via shell limestone, Dogger and dolomite, for example in the German cultivation areas of Baden, Franconia, Rheinhessen and Württemberg. AC soils over limestone-rich loose rock such as loess are referred to as pararendzina. These have a higher one Water storage capacity, It is believed that rendzines become iron-containing in the long term Terra Rossa floors develop.
Rigosol: The one through that Rigolen, that is, a special type of soil that arises is the actual, man-made vineyard soil. The originally layered soil horizons are dug up or plowed up to a meter deep and mixed together. The aim is to improve the physico-chemical properties.
Unprocessed soil (Syrosem): Name for a relatively young, still little weathered and mostly mechanically crushed, pure rock soil . It has only marginally trained A or B horizons. Due to the physical and chemical weathering of the raw material, the stage of the raw soil is often quickly exceeded and more differentiated soil types are formed. If there is enough water in the subsoil, many grape varieties thrive well to excellent.
Red Earth: See below Terra Rossa,
Rotliegend (es): Striking red colored rock layers, which are derived from the geological period of the Rotliegend in which they were formed. The red color is caused by finely divided hematite flakes (red iron stone) and indicates the deposit in the hot climate. Rotliegendes is an old miner's expression. The floor is made of lime-rich clay, silt and sandstones. It has a limited water storage capacity, but has good ventilation. It is difficult to root the deeper rock. The term is particularly common in the German growing areas palatinate and Rheinhessen common for the vineyard soils found there. These come in the form of red slate, especially in the "red slope" within the als Rhine front designated area.
Sand: Weathering product of hard rocks as a defined grain size fraction between 63 µm and 2 millimeters. Most grains of sand have a high proportion of quartz and feldspar (see above for both). In pure sand there can be a lack of trace elements zinc come. The permeable, dry and often infertile soil results in fragrant, but low-acid wines. One advantage of sandy soils is that the phylloxera can't stay here. That is why such vineyards were largely spared during the phylloxera disaster in the 19th century. One example is the Portuguese area Colares, See also under Sandweinpension,
Slate: Pressed sedimentary rock, which was created under the influence of high pressure from clay and mud deposits in the deep sea and formed from more or less horizontally stacked sediment layers. That is why it is easy to break slate into slabs. Geologically, it is a group of metamorphic rocks such as amphibolite slate, glaucoma slate (blue slate), garnet slate and clay slate. As a dark rock, slate has an excellent heat storage capacity and is therefore particularly suitable for viticulture in cooler climates. There is weathering to various clay minerals. This mineral-rich soil type occurs, for example, in many German growing areas and is almost ideal for that Riesling suitable. The slate floor results in light, elegant and classy wines. See also above for phyllite.
Silt : See below at Silt.
Gravel: debris deposits in the form of stones of various sizes, which are mostly formed by weathering from rocks. Some of these deposits were also transported through glaciers, rivers and landslides and gradually rounded off. Round gravel is called gravel, smaller angular stones as chippings and larger angular stones as rubble.
Black earth: See below at Chernosem.
Alluvial: See above in alluvium.
Sediment : Layered or sedimentary rock created by sedimentation, which was removed elsewhere and then solidified. A distinction is made between the three groups clastic (due to destruction), organogenic (caused by chemical processes) and biogenic (caused by the activity of living beings) sedimentary rocks.
Silt: Description (silt) for loose rock originating from the rubble of other rocks, the size of which lies between clay and sand (grain size range from 0.002 mm to 0.063 millimeter). This type of soil often occurs in loess or alluvium, for example in the California area Napa Valley, See also above for conglomerate.
Stone / stony: See above for gravel.
Tegel: Also known as plastosol, plastic clay; see below for sound.
Terra Rossa : Iron-rich soil type of bright red or brown-red color occurring mainly in the Mediterranean region (Southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East).
Clay: Earthy, soft and easily deformable mass, which consists of flat, plate-shaped clay minerals. They are microscopic crystal flakes (about a thousandth of a millimeter in size), the electrostatic charge of which makes the material stick. The tiles lie close together like a pile of cards. If water is added, wafer-thin water films form between them (slippery, with a small amount plastic = Tegel or plastosol). The most important of the numerous clay minerals are beidellite, illite, kaolinite (basis for porcelain manufacture), montmorillonite (also source clay, most important component of bentonite, Weathering product from volcanic ash), pyrophylite and vermiculite. Clay materials arise, for example, when granite feldspar weathered. At the same time, the two other components (quartz and mica) become free and mix with the clay minerals.
These weathering products have often been transported far by water, wind and ice. The clay has different compositions depending on the final deposit. The more sand the filler contains in the clay, the "leaner". About two thirds of a “fat” clay consists of clay minerals. At 50% clay, one speaks of loamy clay; clayey clay only contains a third, clay around 20% and sandy clay 10% clay minerals. Clay floors have a high water storage capacity, but this is not always an advantage. They often have high content potassium on. Such soils result in full-bodied, strong wines with good acidity.
Clay mica slate: See above under phyllite.
Travertine: Yellowish lime sinter or lime tuff formed by the source separation of rivers or springs; see above under lime and below under tuff.
Chernosem: The name is derived from Russian and means black earth. With this type of soil, a strong, sometimes meter-thick humus layer lies directly above the starting material (for example loess, sand, tegel - see above) and is the basis for great fertility. Mostly this soil has an optimal water balance and is excellently suited for viticulture and agriculture (but can be misused for mass production). Lime-free soils are called Paratschernoseme.
Tuff: Lime tuff (also travertine or spring tuff) means the deposition of lime with air pockets, which makes it different from sinter. The porous structure is caused by swell mosses, on the plant body of which lime precipitates until the mosses are completely limed and die, while new mosses are already growing over them. Lime tuff should not be confused with tuff of volcanic origin, which consists of cooled and solidified volcanic fly ash. Volcanic tuff comes in for example in some Italian areas Pompeii in the vicinity of Vesuvius and is particularly on the Loire widespread (many castles are built from it), where it is the base in the best locations such as the appellation Chinon (Loire) forms. The red wine variety thrives particularly well on this soil Cabernet Franc,
Primitive rock: rock formation of the Variscan mountains, the formation of which ended around 300 million years ago at the end of the carbon in the transition to the earth age of the Permian, i.e. long before the formation of the Alps. Remnants of the Variscan mountains are the Black Forest, the Vosges, the Harz and the Ore Mountains and also the crystal base of the Alps is formed from the "bedrock" of the Variscan mountains. The main rocks of the primary rock are deep rocks such as granite, which has arisen as a result of the cooling and solidification of the earth's crust, or gneiss, which is a metamorphosed granite in the primary rock.
Effusion stones such as basalt, dolerite, porphyry formed after the end of volcanic activity during the cooling of the magma inside volcanic vents near the surface of the earth). Primitive rock soils, especially those made of gneiss, are often rich in potassium and produce fruity, spicy wines. In Austria this is the case Green Veltliner and at Riesling a gladly used indication on the label,
Volcanic rock: This arises during a volcanic eruption, in which glowing, liquid stone paste emerges from the interior of the earth (magma) as lava to the earth's surface. It forms from the then cooled lava. Fiery wines with a rich bouquet thrive on this rather rare soil type. Examples are the wines from the Italian region Campania, especially the DOC Vesuvio on the slopes of the volcano. There are further occurrences in the German growing regions to bathe (Kaiserstuhl, Hohentwiel), Near and palatinate, in the Austrian wine-growing region Vulkanland Steiermark with many volcanic cones, some in Tokaj-Hegyalja, the area of the Hungarian Tokaj, as well as in the Finger Lake area in the state new York,
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,