Next climate. vine one of the most important factors influencing wine quality. The different types of soil have evolved in millions of years through physical and chemical weathering of rocks as well as humification of organic matter (see also under geology ). In physical weathering, forces of nature such as wind, water, heat, cold and ice first cause the mechanical fragmentation of rock formations into pebbles and gravel. Strong temperature differences, frictional and shear forces as well as frost damage caused by frozen water play an important role in rock fissures. Chemical weathering processes like oxidation, Solution processes and acid attacks attack the mineral lattice structure of the rocks.