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sparkling wine

sparkling wine (GB)
vin mousseux (F)
spumante (I)

Especially in German-speaking countries, the usual term for a manufactured according to certain quality criteria sparkling wine (Quality sparkling wine). Except for Champagne Sparkling wines produced must not be called champagne, even if they were produced according to champagne rules. It is not a question of quality, but of origin, The names in other countries include Afrodis Oinos (Greece), Cava (Spain), Crémant (outside of Champagne in France, but also in other countries), Pezsgő (Hungary), Sparkling Wine (Overseas) and Spumante (Italy). The work steps are very similar and under champagne described. In contrast to champagne, the second one fermentation for sparkling wine often in steel tanks using the pressure tank method, named after the inventor Méthode charmat, The wine is placed in a pressure tank after adding sugar and yeast fermented and also left on the yeast for a certain time. From there, the finished sparkling wine is also under pressure filtered and then on bottles filled. This procedure saves the time-consuming work steps remuage (Shake) and dégorgement (Remove yeast set).

Sparkling wine - various names from Cava to Vonkelwyn

The second difference to champagne is that blending method, A classic champagne is often (but not exclusively) one Cuvée from different documents. vintages and mostly Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, A sparkling wine, however, is mostly unmixed made from grapes of the same location and the same vintage. In Germany this is predominantly used Riesling and in Austria the varieties Riesling. Green Valtellina and Chardonnay but also used others. But there are also many sparkling wine brands that use the classic method bottle fermentation getting produced. In this case it is on the label Depending on the country of manufacture, the terms "Méthode traditional" or "Méthode classique" used in France, Germany and Austria and in Italy "Metodo tradizionale" or "Metodo classico".

How the sparkling wine got its name

The term "sparkling wine" is not origin moderately protected, even though Germany has tried for decades to only allow the name in countries with the German language. After long legal disputes, an EU decision was finally confirmed in 1975 that this language restriction was discriminatory. Quality sparkling wine can therefore be produced worldwide under the name sparkling wine. By the mid-19th century, every sparkling wine was considered in many countries regardless of its actual origin champagne designated. The origin of the term sparkling wine is in the Latin word "siccus", which means dry. The preferred wine in the Middle Ages in the southern climes was a sweet, heavy dessert wine. "Secco" (Spanish "seco") finally prevailed as a term for bitter wine.

Later, every southern wine (especially the Spanish one), whether sweet or bitter, was called "Vino seco", in France it was simply called "le sec". England got the from Spain sherry and called him "Wyne seck", of which bag remained and was considered a synonym for fortified, Spanish wine. The sherry brand "Dry Sack" from Williams & Humbert still reminds of this today. In the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) the name "Seck" appeared and mutated to "Sckt", then to "Sect" and finally to "Sekt". But it was still not a sparkling wine, but simply a generally Spanish wine.

Sparkling wine - William Shakespeare, August Wilhelm Schlegel and Ludwig Devrient

In the royal drama of William Shakespeare (1564-1616) the word "sack" often occurs for sherry. The German Shakespeare translator August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767-1845) translated the into Henry IV Incorrectly occurring term "sack" with "a good, Spanish sparkling wine". In November 1825, the famous Shakespearean mime Ludwig Devrient (1784-1832) stormed, completely caught up in his role as a dissolute-drunk Falstaff in Heinrich IV., after the performance in the (still existing) Berlin wine bar "Lutter & Wegner" on the Gendarmenmarkt and snorted at the waiter: Bring me sparkling wine, villain! Is there no virtue left on earth? The waiter knew, however, that Devrient plunged down a glass or two of champagne after each performance, so he didn't bring him a "secco" (sherry), but the foaming drink. The strange order quickly got around and became fashion. More and more people ordered sparkling wine, but said champagne,

However, the term has by no means been used in the specialist literature and it was not included in the famous German dictionary of the Brothers Grimm. As a general term for sparkling wine, sparkling wine only slowly became established until the end of the 19th century and was officially recognized in 1894 when the "Association of German Sparkling Wine Cellars" was founded. In Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, sparkling wine is only briefly mentioned in a subordinate clause in 1902. The term champagne was no longer allowed to be used after the First World War, which was even included in the Versailles Treaty concluded in 1919.

Wine Law Germany

After the German wine law From the year 1971 only those sparkling wines may be described as sparkling wine that are from the sensory Test achieve at least 12 out of 20 points, at least 3.5 bar Carbon dioxide pressure have at least 10% vol alcohol content own and have a maximum sulfur content of 200 mg / l. There are different names.

May be used in sparkling wine without an additional designation base wines from different countries (including wines outside of Germany). Only products made from basic German wines may be called German sparkling wines; this can also be blends from wines from different growing areas. A champagne b. A. may only be made from wines that come from the growing area indicated on the label.

The sparkling wine may be produced by those companies which are classified as producer be valid. Such sparkling wines have to be bottled from basic wines that are produced Quality wine b. A. correspond. The special form of " predicate sparkling wine" had to consist of at least 60% German base wines; however, this designation was prohibited by the European Court of Justice in 1975. The Austrian counterpart to the sparkling wine with similar production conditions is Hauersekt,

Well-known sparkling wine brands and sparkling wine producers in Germany are among others Deinhardstein. Prince of Metternich. Henkell. Kupferberg. MM (Matheus Müller), Rotkäppchen-Mumm. Rüdesheimer Sektkellerei Ohlig. Schlumberger Hartmut. Söhnlein and Wilhelmshof,

Wine Law Austria

From the 2015 vintage, a three-tier quality pyramid for Austrian sparkling wine was introduced. The names are "classic" (in white, red and rosé, all sparkling wine fermentation processes, all styles and dosages, 9 months lees, Max. Alcohol content 12.5% vol, vintage allowed, grapes from one state), "reserve" (in white and rose, no blending of red and white basic wine for the Rose. yield 60% bottle fermentation, 18 months yeast, max. 12 g / l residual sugar = brut nature, extra brut or brut, vintage allowed, grapes from one state) and "Große Reserve" (in white and rosé, no blending of red and white base wine for the rosé, handpicking with max. dumping height 35 cm, yield 50%, bottle fermentation, 30 months yeast, max. 12 g / l residual sugar, grapes from a single wine-growing community, location names allowed).

Sparkling wine - tiered quality pyramid (classic, reserve, large reserve)

Well-known sparkling wine brands and sparkling wine producers in Austria are among others Inführ. Kattus and Schlumberger,

Additional information

A frequently asked question is whether sparkling wines like sparkling wine or champagne durable or is suitable for long storage and like a high quality Still wine matures and evolves. As a rule, it has already reached its peak after marketing. A diverse culture has developed around the enjoyment of sparkling wine (champagne). See under Champagne cocktail. Champagne glass. Champagne bucket. Champagne pyramid. Champagne Pliers and sabrage (Champagne-heads).

The different degrees of sweetness depending on the content residual sugar are under sparkling wine specified. A detailed description of the sparkling wine production with all processing steps can be found at champagne, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the legally regulated types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available at wine law,

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