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In Austria common name (also "steam", "have a steam" or "he is under steam") for one intoxication; see there also many other expressions for intoxication or excessive consumption of alcohol.

General term for an emotional state of exaggerated ecstasy or an intense feeling of happiness that raises someone beyond their normal emotional state. Such a condition is caused, among other things, by psychotropic substances. These are active ingredients that affect the human psyche. Depending on the active ingredient, this is associated with disorders in the level of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behavior. As a result, the intoxication becomes by enjoying alcohol treated. When consumed excessively, alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, inhibition of thinking, numbness and overestimation of yourself. In early high cultures, excessive drinking to drunkenness was a ritualized custom on certain occasions. Excessive intoxication was considered normal until the Middle Ages. From the 16th century it was outlawed and from the 19th century it became increasingly a disease ( alcoholism ) considered.

Hand with handcuff and shot glass / drunk man

Levels of development / level of intoxication

The state of intoxication is a state of excitement or twilight that lasts for minutes to hours, which is usually accompanied by misunderstanding of the situation in the form of illusions and always leaves behind complete or partial amnesia (loss of memory). In the case of alcohol poisoning, mental disinhibition initially occurs, increased urge to speak and move with frequent transition to depression and aggression, which can increase to the point of being destructive. After the intoxication subsides often show up as Male cat designated poisoning aftermath. Alcohol consumption leads in stages from well-being and happiness in extreme cases to intoxication and can even be fatal. The stages of development in thousandth :

  • 0.3: Beginning of the effects of alcohol, legal limit in Germany
  • 0.5: clear feeling of warmth, enrichment, legal limit in Austria
  • 0.8: clearly limited responsiveness, legal limit in Switzerland
  • 1.0: Concentration and coordination problems, first language problems
  • 1.5: severe drunkenness, slurred speaking
  • 1.8: increased intoxication with disinhibition and swaying walking
  • 2.0: uncontrolled staggering, nausea, vomiting
  • 2,3: high intoxication with apathy and fatigue, amnesia (memory loss)
  • 2.5: Intoxication, from here there is danger to life
  • 3.0: you can no longer stand upright, loss of consciousness
  • 4.0: lethal dose

The emerging in the 19th century Temperance societies (Abstinence movements) tried to draw attention to the dangers of alcohol consumption by means of some representational means. The related cartoon "The development of a drunkard - From the first glass to the grave" dates from 1846:

Temperance - stages of alcoholism - from the first glass to the grave

Alcohol tolerance

The tolerability of alcohol, i.e. the amount from which it becomes intoxicated depends on age, physical constitution, gender, type of person and the drinking speed. Women and especially East Asians, Indigenous Peoples of America and Aboriginal Australians have less ADH, ALDH and other breakdown enzymes and are therefore drunk faster and longer. A completely different criterion is the alcohol-compatible or harmless amount of alcohol with regular (daily) consumption. This is stated differently in the relevant literature and varies considerably between 20 to 60 grams of alcohol per day (see under health ). Alcohol is high nutritional value, around 95% are converted into energy.

The alcohol consumed goes straight from the stomach (20%) and small intestine (80%) into the bloodstream and then into the body tissue (absorption). The distribution depends on the amount of blood (approx. 5 to 7l) and the body size or body area, the more extensive, the better the alcohol is distributed. However, fatty tissue can hardly absorb alcohol. Therefore, alcohol is distributed more in a tall, lean person and there is relatively less alcohol concentration in the blood compared to a small, fat person. The intake is relatively slow and (depending on the contents of the stomach) is only completed one to two hours after the end of drinking. The calculation of the alcohol level is below Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK).

Intoxication as therapy

Many scientists of the 18th and 19th centuries dealt with the intoxication as therapy and wine in particular was considered to be the ideal drink to get into this euphoric state, but society was always assumed (excessive drinking alone is a sign of possible alcohol dependence) , The German naturalist Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) also dealt with this in his theory of the monadic soul and its inability to perceive the "subcritical" movements of the environment when awake. Only the light intoxication sharpens the senses and expands the sensory horizon of experience. The US psycho-pharmacologist Ronald K. Siegel writes in the book "Noise Drugs in Animals and Humans" that intoxication as the fourth drive, like sex, hunger and thirst, can never be suppressed .

The important Greek philosopher Kostis Papajorgis (* 1940) unfolds in the essay "The Rush - A Philosophical Aperitif" a philosophy of passion for delirium from Homer to Baudelaire and Dostoevsky to Jack London. Far from defending the anesthetic of everyday worries or a slurping society, Papajorgis reports on the real intoxication, the secret of which is “renouncing self-rule” and the privilege of the noble or ordinary souls who have a penchant...

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