Preparation of the mash for fermentation by treading the grapes with bare feet in order to break up the berries for better extraction of the colourings and tannins. Already in ancient times this was also an alternative to pressing, which is depicted in the grave of the priest Chaemwese (1281-1225 BC) in ancient Egyptian Thebes. This is still common today in Portugal for the production of port wine in the flat Lagares (stone troughs), as well as in France, Spain (Rioja) and Italy. The rammers stand with their arms hooked in a row and march slowly back and forth in the trough for up to two hours. The human foot is strong enough to crush the grape, but not so hard and unyielding that the grape seed bursts open. The bitter tanning agents contained in the seeds are undesirable. See also under vinification.