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sulphurous acid

acide sulfureux (F)
acidità solforosa (I)
sulfurous acid (GB)
ácido sulfuroso (PO)
diwaterstofsulfiet (N)

Moderate acid, which when initiating sulfur dioxide is formed in water; according to international standards, it is called dihydrogen sulfite. It has a tendency, especially in a warm environment, through oxidation into the much more poisonous and stronger sulfuric acid proceed. The salts and ester Sulphurous acid is called sulfites or also neutral or secondary sulfites, as well as hydrogen sulfites or former bisulfites or also primary or acid sulfites. When sulfur dioxide is added to mash, must or wine, most of it is converted to sulfurous acid, leaving only a small part as sulfur dioxide. The sulphurous acid immediately begins to break down into sulphites and hydrogen sulphites. Both are compounds with various substances in the wine. Only when these processes are completed, the so-called free sulphurous acid is present. The amount depends on the temperature and the PH value but is usually about 20%. This means that most of the sulphurous acid is present in bound form at around 80% of the wine.

The undissociated (unchanged) sulphurous acid or sulfur dioxide have antimicrobial action especially against Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria), Lactic acid bacteria and wild yeasts, The hydrogen sulfites bind flavoring substances, among others acetaldehyde (Alcohol precursor). The sulfites react with the dissolved oxygen to sulfates and have reducing effect, The sum of free and bound sulfur dioxide (sulphurous acid) gives the total sulfur (also total sulfur dioxide or total sulphurous acid). The share in the wine is by means of iodometry (free) and azidimetry (bound) measured and expressed in milligrams per liter (mg / l). There are too much sulfur in the wine sanitary harmful, therefore there are legal limits. Even in compliance with these limits, but it may be due to improper dry preservation empty wooden barrels, or over-sulphurisation of the wine to the wine error Schwefelsäurefirn come.

sulfur In addition to water, salt and calcium, it is the most abundant component of the human body. It is one of the most important functionaries in the organism, is necessary for the skin, the hair and the nails, keeps the tissue soft, relieves stress, has been proven to help with asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, internal and external inflammation, back and muscle pain and allergy , Sulfur baths are generally known as beneficial to health and are also used by many people. The body of an adult with an average weight of 70 kg contains around 150 g of sulfur. The daily requirement is estimated at just under 900 mg. Some sulfur compounds are toxic (toxic) in higher doses. Sulfites can be used for example vitamins destroy the B group, inhibit the action of the enzymes and enhance the action of carcinogenic substances. Sulfur-rich foods should therefore only be consumed in moderation.

The WHO (World Health Organization) has identified as a harmless limit to health ( ADI ) for the daily intake of sulfur defined in the human body as 0.7 mg per kg of body weight. Sulfur can be found in foods allergies or trigger other unwanted reactions. In the case of allergy to sulphites, significantly lower amounts than stated below can trigger the so-called "sulphite asthma". Therefore, since November 25, 2005, according to the EU Regulation, more than 10 mg / l of sulfur content is required to be declared label (By the way, this value is exceeded in almost all wines). The two texts "Contains: Sulfur dioxide" or "Contains: Sulfites" are permitted (however, the use of the formula "SO2" is not permitted). This provision applies to all products, ie for grape. Wine. sparkling wine and vinegar (Vinegar). Decisive is also the share of residual sugar, The values ​​valid since August 2009 EU wine market :

WINE TYPE (FA = free share, KG = no limit) RESTZ MG / L FA
must, tw. fermented must, Storm, White wine / rosé <5 g / l 200 KG
Most, tw. fermented must, storm, wine white / rosé from 5 g / l 250 KG
Most, tw. fermented must, storm, red wine <5 g / l 150 KG
Most, tw. fermented must, storm, red wine from 5 g / l 200 KG
country wine white / rose <5 g / l 200 50
Landwein white / rosé from 5 g / l 250 50
Country wine red <5 g / l 150 50
Country wine red from 5 g / l 200 50
quality wine. cabinet white / rose <5 g / l 200 50
Quality wine, Cabinet white / rosé from 5 g / l 210 50
Quality wine, Cabinet red <5 g / l 150 50
Quality wine, Cabinet red from 5 g / l 200 50
late vintage white / rose <5 g / l 200 50
Late vintage white / rosé from 5 g / l 300 50
Late harvest red <5 g / l 150 50
Late harvest red from 5 g / l 300 50
choice white / rose <5 g / l 200 60
Elite white / rosé from 5 g / l 350 60
Elite red <5 g / l 150 60
Elite red from 5 g / l 350 60
outbreak. Beerenauslese. Strohwein. TBA. Eiswein <5 g / l 150/200 75
Outbreak, berry selection, straw wine, TBA, ice wine from 5 g / l 400 75
Fortified, Quality liqueur wine white / red <5 g / l 150 KG
Liqueur wine, quality liqueur white / red from 5 g / l 200 KG
Perlwein white / rose <5 g / l 200 KG
Pearl white / rosé from 5 g / l 250 KG
Red sparkling wine <5 g / l 150 KG
Red sparkling wine from 5 g / l 200 KG
sparkling wine mixed with carbon dioxide white / rosé <5 g / l 200 KG
Sparkling wine mixed with carbon dioxide white / rosé from 5 g / l 250 KG
Sparkling wine mixed with carbon dioxide turns red <5 g / l 150 KG
Sparkling wine mixed with carbon dioxide turns red from 5 g / l 200 KG
sparkling wine not rel. 235 KG
Sparkling wine for sale in Austria not rel. 275 KG
Quality sparkling wine (sparkling wine) not rel. 185 KG
Quality sparkling wine (sparkling wine) for sale in Austria not rel. 225 KG
Low-alcohol wine not rel. 200 50
de-alcoholized wine not rel. 200 KG
Most fruits, fruit wine, Fruit sparkling wine not rel. 200 KG

In the production of Biowein it is assumed that significantly lower quantities will be used, up to a maximum of two-thirds of these quantitative limits. Single organic farming oblige their members to do so. So writes Bioland for red and white wines with less than 5 g residual sugar per liter maximum of 110 mg / l (red wine) and 140 mg / l sulfur dioxide (white wine). Wines containing more than 5 grams of residual sugar per liter must not contain more than 140 mg / l (red wine) and 180 mg / l (white wine) of sulfur dioxide. See also a list of all wine ingredients under total extract,

All aids, works and measures in the vineyard can be found under Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,

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