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Sultana

The white grape variety probably comes from the eastern Mediterranean. Around 130 Synonyms in many languages testify to the most likely very old age and the worldwide distribution of the vine. The second main name is Sultanina, which is used in many countries; others are shown in bold . The main alphabetically grouped by country are Banati, Banati Abiad, Banati Abyad ( Egypt ); Kishmish ( Armenia. Afghanistan ); Sultanina Blanche, Sultana, Sultana Blanche ( France ); Sultana ( Greece ); Sultanina Alba, Sultanina Bianca, Sultana Alba ( Italy ); Sultanina Bela, Sultanina Bijela ( Croatia ); Kismis Alb ( Romania ); Cekirdeksis, Cekirdeksiz, Kismis , Sultani, Sultani Cekirdeksiz, Sultanieh, Sultaniye , Sultaniye Kinalyi ( Turkey ), Fehér Szultanszölö, Szultan Szöllö ( Hungary ); Thompson Seedless ( Australia. South Africa. United States ).

The exact origin is in the dark, in various sources, including the countries of Afghanistan, Greece, Iran, South Africa and Turkey. Likewise, the lineage (of the possibly already extinct parents) is not known. Colored ones found in Afghanistan mutations are Kishmish Sorh (red berries) and Kishmish Siah (black berries). The variety was a crossing partner for the new breeding of table grape varieties such as Carina. Flame Seedless. Himrod and Romulus, as well as from wine varieties such as Tarrango and Tulillah, From a presumably natural crossing Vasarga Chernaya x Sultana Kishmish Vatkana,

Sultana - grape and leaf

The medium-ripening vine is very susceptible to fungal diseases, The berries are characterized by a relatively high proportion of sugar. It thrives best seedless Variety in a warm, dry climate. Since they are very good on the plant hormone gibberellin responds, it will respond during the blossom sprayed. This causes fewer, but larger berries per grape. It produces neutral white wines with delicate peach and pineapple aromas. Above all, it is considered table grape and for raisins used. It also serves for the production of RTK (rectified grape must concentrate) and base wines for distillation or production of spirits.

In the Turkey the variety is widely used for table grapes and raisins, the country is also one of the largest table grape producers. The vineyard area is estimated at around 110,000 hectares. The winery started in the early 1990s Kavaklidere, the variety in western Anatolia to grow Denizli and Manisa as a wine grape and to win wines from it. Among other things, it is used in branded wines Cankaya and Villa Doluca used. In 2010, a total of 1,750 hectares were designated for wine production in Turkey. There are further stocks of wine grapes in Australia (430 ha), Mexico (841 ha), Peru (15 ha) and Cyprus (371 ha).

The quantities as table grapes are rough estimates and are given very differently in different sources. In California around 80,000 hectares are used almost exclusively for the production of raisins Central Valley used. The variety referred to here as Thompson Seedless was introduced by a William Thompson. There are other large stocks of grapes and raisins in Australia (~ 6,000 ha), Chile (~ 21,000 ha), China (10,000) Greece (~ 25,000 ha), Iraq (~ 10,000 ha), Iran (~ 50,000 ha), South Africa (9,000 ha) and Syria (~ 12,000 ha). A current total as table grapes should therefore be around 250,000 hectares.

In 1990, the variety with a total of 271,828 hectares of vineyards was in the world varieties ranking still in 4th place. However, it can be assumed with great probability that in some countries no distinction was made between the use as a wine grape or table grape. The fact is that the variety has experienced an extreme reduction as a wine grape in the past 20 years due to poor quality. For wine production in 2010 there were only 3,407 hectares, which means rank 138.

Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)

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