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Switzerland

Suisse (F)
Svizzera (I)
Suiza (ES)
Switzerland (GB)
Suíça (PO)
Zwitserland (N)

The Romans planted vines in the Basel and Windisch area around the turn of the times and founded viticulture. In the 6th century AD, monks from Burgundy founded the monastery of St. Maurice near Aigle in the canton of Vaud and cultivated vineyards. In the middle of the 8th century there were vineyards in Chur Rhine Valley and on Lake Constance busy. As elsewhere in Europe, winegrowing was by the Middle Ages Cistercians cultured. They founded the Hautcrèt Palézieux monastery and in 1142 laid the first terraced vineyard on Lake Geneva in the canton Vaud on. The area Dézaley is still one of the best appellations in Switzerland. From the beginning of the confederation of the three cantons Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden in 1291 until the 18th century, wine production increased steadily. Around 1850, the vines covered around 35,000 hectares, more than twice as much as today. In the 19th century, viticulture declined due to foreign competition, as well as through the phylloxera and the mildew who also reached Switzerland as one of the last European countries. After the Second World War there was an upswing again.

Switzerland is (after Albania ) The most mountainous country in Europe and the Alps with their foothills also have a strong influence on viticulture. The vineyards are mainly at the beginning of the three large river valleys Rhône in the west, Rhine in the north and Po in the south. In these valleys and along the many lakes, there are many vineyards on glacier moraines with mostly terraced steep slopes up to 70% slope. The one at the community Visperterminen Vineyard Riebe lying at 1,100 meters above sea level is the highest vineyard Central Europe. Especially on the southern side of the Alps with the largest wine growing area Wallis there are plenty of hours of sunshine, but relatively little rainfall. Only the one in the south Ticino is very rainy. Linguistically, Switzerland is divided into the three wine-growing regions of Western Switzerland (French Switzerland with three-quarters of the area under vines), Eastern Switzerland (German Switzerland - the "country of red country wines" and the smallest area) and Ticino in the south (Italian Switzerland). For this reason, the diverse wine culture reflects German, Italian and French influences.

A little more than half of the total area is occupied by red wine varieties. The most common are Pinot Noir (Pinot Noir) and Gamay, only in Italian Switzerland (Ticino) does Merlot clearly dominate with over 80%. Chasselas (also called Dorin, Fendant and Perlan) predominates among the white wines, followed by Müller-Thurgau (here Riesling x Sylvaner) - the name was given to the Swiss wine pioneer Dr. Hermann Müller-Thurgau (1850-1927) a memorial. In Eastern Switzerland (German-speaking Switzerland) there is almost a monoculture, here the red wine variety Pinot Noir dominates with around 70% of the area. The planted after the phylloxera disaster Americano make up about 15% share and are made especially for in Ticino table grapes and grappa used. As Old plants the numerous old ones autochthonous Vine varieties that are cultivated primarily in the canton of Valais. The Blend 2010 (ex Kym Anderson ):

vine Synonyms or name in Switzerland colour hectare
Pinot Noir Pinot Noir, Clevner, Chlavner red 4402
ChasselasDorin. Fendant Gutedel Perlan White 4013
Gamay Gamay Noir red 1521
Merlot - red 1028
Müller-ThurgauRiesling x Sylvaner White 493
Gamaret - red 380
Chardonnay - White 321
Cornalin Cornalin d'Aoste, Humagne Rouge red 244
Sylvaner Gros Rhin, Johannisberg, Sylvaner White 241
Pinot grismalvoisie, Malvoisie du Valais White 216
Garanoir - red 203
Syrah - red 181
Arvine Petite Arvine White 154
Sauvignon Blanc - White 134
Rouge du Pays Cornalin du Valais red 116
Diolinoir - red 112
Pinot Blanc - White 105
Traminer
Gewurztraminer
Heida, Païen, Savagnin Blanc
Heidarot
White 83
49
Cabernet Sauvignon - red 63
Cabernet Franc - red 54
Muscat Blanc / muscatel Muscat du Valais White 49
Marsanne Ermitage Blanc, Marsanne Blanche White 48
Amigne Amique White 43
regent - red 41
Viognier - White 31
Humagne Blanche Humagne Blanc White 30
Doral - White 27
dark fields - red 24
Räuschling Großer Räusling, Züri (ch) rebe White 23
Aligoté - White 23
Cabernet Dorsa - red 22
Dornfelder - red 21
Cabernet Jura - red 19
Ancellotta - red 19
Kerner - White 19
Zweigelt - red 15
Galotta - red 13
Bondola Bondola Nera, Brieger red 13
Solaris - White 13
Maréchal Foch - red 13
Dakapo - red 13
Riesling Petit Rhin White 12
Johanniter - White 11
Cot Côt, Malbec red 10
Carmi Noir - red 10
Charmont - White 10
Leon Millot Millot red 9
Seyval Blanc - White 8th
Plans Robert = Gamay - red 6
Chenin Blanc - White 6
Sauvignon gris - White 5
Scheurebe - White 5
Chambourcin - red 3
completer Großer Lafnetscha, Malanserrebe, Zürirebe White 3
Marselan - red 2
Millot-Foch - red 2
VB 32-7 Leaves 32-7 White 2
Baco noir - red 1
Landal Noir - red 1
Birstaler nutmeg Muscat de la Birse, VB 86-6 White ?
Cabaret Noir VB 91-26-4 red ?
Cabernet Blanc - White ?
Cabernet Colonjes - red ?
Cabertin - red ?
foundling (mut. Müller-Thurgau) - White ?
Lafnetscha Blanchier, Gros Gouais White ?
Mara - red ?
Pinotin - red ?
RAC 3209 - red ?
Reselle - White ?
Rèze Blanc de Maurienne White ?
Riesel - White ?
Rouge de Fully Durize red ?


In 2012, the vineyard area was 15,000 hectares, of which 1.004 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see worldwide statistics under Wine production volumes ). Switzerland produces excellent wines in many variations. The only reason they may not be so well known outside the country is that they are almost exclusively consumed in the country and even have to be imported twice as much. Most of the wines are named after the municipality (many have AOC status) in which they are produced. There are 26 political cantons, 17 of which have viticulture. Many do not have their own wine regulations, which is why not every canton is a separate wine region. The six wine regions are the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Vaud and Valais, as well as German-speaking Switzerland (with 17 cantons) and the three-lake region that crosses cantons. The wine cantons or wine regions:

CANTON
WINE REGION (WR)
CANTON / WINE REGION
French / Italian
GEOGRAPHICAL
REGION
HA
Aargau Argovie, Argovia German Switzerland 395
Basel country Bâle-Campagne, Basilea Campagna German Switzerland 80
Bern Berne, Berna German Switzerland 250
German Switzerland (WR) Suisse alémanique, Svizzera tedesca German Switzerland 2600
Three-Lakes (WR) Pays des Trois-Lacs West Switzerland 945
Freiburg Friborg, Friburgo West Switzerland 120
Geneva (WR) Genève, Ginevra West Switzerland 1340
Grisons Grisons, Grigioni German Switzerland 384
law Law, Giura West Switzerland 9.5
Lucerne Lucerne, Lucerna German Switzerland 40
Neuchatel Neuchâtel, Neuchatel West Switzerland 605
Nidwalden Nidwald, Nidvaldo German Switzerland 0.2
Schaffhausen Schaffhouse, Sciaffusa German Switzerland 500
Schwyz Schwytz, Svitto German Switzerland 32
St. Gallen St-Gall, San Gallo German Switzerland 220
Ticino (WR) Ticino, Ticino Italian Switzerland 1028
Thurgau Thurgovie, Turgovia German Switzerland 274
Vaud (WR) Vaud, Vaud West Switzerland 3882
Wallis (WR) Valais, Vallese West Switzerland 5236
Zurich Zurich, Zurigo German Switzerland 644


1990 was in the canton Wallis the first Swiss wine-growing region to introduce a quality wine hierarchy. In the past, it was largely up to the winemaker what information to put on the label. As a rule, these were congregation and / or or grape varieties or one Wine brand name, Swiss wine legislation provides for three wine categories:

Under category I are " quality wines with controlled designation of origin ”, which are designated by the name of a canton or a geographical area of a canton. Under certain conditions, the cantons can extend individual areas beyond the cantonal borders. The individual cantons lay down provisions on the area boundaries, permitted grape varieties, minimum must content per grape variety, maximum yield per grape variety, cultivation methods, wine-making methods and a system for sensory and analytical testing as a prerequisite for marketing.

The Mostgewichte for white wine types must be at least 15.2 (western Switzerland) or 15.8 ° Brix (German-speaking Switzerland, Italian Switzerland), as well as at least 17 ° Brix for red wine varieties. The yield may be a maximum of 1.4 kg / m² (1.2 Italian Switzerland) for white wine varieties and a maximum of 1.2 kg / m² (1.0 Italian Switzerland) for red wine varieties. The following designations are permitted only for category I wines: late vintage (Vendange tardive, Vendemmia tardiva), choice (Sélection, Selezione), Beerenauslese (Sélection de grains nobles), Trockenbeerenauslese. Eiswein (Vin de glace), Beerliwein. Flétri (Flétri sur souche), Oeil de Perdrix (Rose), Strohwein (Passerillé, sforzato), Süßdruck (Pressé doux) - also for country wines, village (s) and Vin des Glaciers (Glacial wine).

Although almost 90% of all Swiss wines have or could have AOC status, the name in Switzerland currently has a rather minor meaning. Many cantons do not yet have their own regulations, but the above general federal regulation is sufficient for them. In some cantons, for example Vaud and Wallis there is the even higher level Grand Cru which is used for privileged locations. There is a special one in the canton of Vaud Terravin-award in gold and platinum for top-class plants.

Category II includes Vins marked with the name of the country or part of the country with a larger extension than that of a canton. The must weights must reach at least 14.4 ° Brix for white wines and at least 15.2 ° Brix for red wines. Yields may not exceed 1.8 kg / m² for white wines and 1.6 kg / m² for red wines.

Category III as the lowest quality level are simple wines ( table wines ), which come from grapes harvested in Switzerland and whose must weights reach at least 13.6 ° Brix for white wines and at least 14.4 ° Brix for red wines.

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