One based on the Italian winemaker Carlo Sylvoz Conegliano in the winegrowing region Veneto named educational system. It is one of the many variants of the espalier and in the broader sense also belongs to the large group of so-called Spurred cordon systems, At a trunk height of 140 to 160 centimeters, a one-armed cordon is pulled down (down instead of up, therefore also reversal education ). As fruit wood two long fruit arches with about ten eyes cut, pulled down in the vertical direction and attached to a wire. Good vigor is a prerequisite. However, this system is not recommended for dry growing areas.
A similar system is the Casarsa upbringing , in which the long cut fruit rods hang freely. Styrian archery with double-decker planting and the identical Hudson River Umbrella education in the USA are very similar. The Umbrella Kniffin system, also similar after the inventor, is used in California for Concord used, which is shown in the video (click to view). See also a list of all systems below training system,