The red grape variety comes from France. There are over 80 Synonyms that testify the old age and the worldwide distribution. The most important from a historical perspective, or still used today are Hermitage, Shiraz ( Australia ), Candive, Marsanne Noir, Petite Sirrah, Petite Syrah, Scyras, Sérène, Serine, Sira, Sirac, Sirah, Syra, Syrac ( France ); Balsamina, Neiretta Cunese, Neiretta del Monregalese, Neiretta del Rosso, Neiretta di Pinerolo, Neiretta di Saluzzo ( Italy ); Shiraz ( South Africa ); Zizak ( Montenegro ). Despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or morphological She may not share similarities with the varieties dureza. Durif (Petite Sirah), Mondeuse Noire. Persan (Serine), Serina e Zeze or Shesh i Zi be confused. The confusing and extremely complicated confusion about the three varieties Durif, peloursin and Syrah in California in connection with the term Petite Si (y) rah is under the keyword Durif described in detail.
There are many hypotheses about the origin. After the most common is the variety from the ancient city of Shiraz (Shiraz) in today Iran (Persia). Incidentally, the famous Persian poet is also from this city Hafiz (1324-1388). From there it was allegedly brought to France by the French crusader Gaspard de Sterimberg in 1225. After another she is supposed to be a descendant of Pliny the Elder (23-79) and Columella (1st half 1st century) mentioned ancient grape variety Allobrogica his. The former also described a "black Aminea "From Syria, which was also suspected as an ancestor. Furthermore, as a possible origin to the Cyclades counting the Greek island of Syra, the city of Syracuse Sicily and also Albania called. But for all these hypotheses, there is no historical, botanical or genetic evidence.
The probable origin was made by in the year 2000 DNA analysis from dr. Carole Meredith and JE Bowers ( University of California ) in collaboration with Jean-Michel Boursiquot ( Montpellier ) clarified. The variety Syrah is a probably natural cross between the two old varieties Mondeuse Blanche (white) x dureza (red). The origin of both parents lies in the former sphere of influence of the Celtic Tribe of the Allobroger between Rhône and Lake Geneva ( Savoy ), which does not confirm the assumption regarding Allobrogica, but explains. The Swiss biologist dr. José Vouillamoz (* 1971) found in 2006 by DNA analysis that Pinot most likely a great-grandfather of Syrah. The (French) Syrah is genetically identical to the (Australian) Shiraz, but they have their own story. Syrah / Shiraz was crossing partner of the new breeds Carina. Durif. Iara. Maximo. Ruby Bolgarskii and Sao Roque,
The medium-maturing vine is prone to Botrytis and mites, as well as very vulnerable to chlorosis, loves the heat, but does not like calcareous soils. It produces deep dark, tannin-rich red wines with intense, diverse aromas of black pepper, Plums, chocolate and leather that have a high aging potential. Across from Cabernet Sauvignon are the tannins softer and smoother. The variety is undoubtedly one of the big names in the world, the Cépages classy, Syrah is indeed in whole France cultivated, but mainly in the Languedoc-Roussillon with almost two-thirds of the amount, as well as at the Rhone, It is one of the varieties in the region typical Rhône Recipe, Well-known wines are Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Côte Rôtie and Hermitage, Especially on the northern Rhone, there are also many varietal Syrah wines. The stock has skyrocketed since the late 1950s from 1,600 hectares to 68,587 hectares in 2010.
Also in Spain There was a huge increase from around 3,000 hectares in 2000 to 20,000 hectares in 2010. Here the variety is mainly in the regions Aragon. Extremadura. Catalonia. La Mancha and Murcia in the Levant grown. Special merit in the introduction acquired the legendary Carlos Falcó from the winery Marqués de Griñón, Likewise there was in Italy a large increase from 1,025 hectares in 2000 to 6,739 hectares in 2010. Here it is mainly in the regions Piedmont. Sicily and Tuscany represented. Other countries in Europe and North Africa were in 2010 Algeria (1,510 ha), Germany (27 ha), Greece (641 ha), Israel (250 ha), Croatia (187 ha), Lebanon. Malta (100 ha), Portugal (3,501 ha), Romania. Switzerland (181 ha), Austria (137 ha), Tunisia (337 ha), Turkey (1,367 ha), Hungary (177 ha) and Cyprus (244 ha).
The viticulture pioneer James Busby (1802-1871) led to the Syrah in 1833 Australia on. Here it was under the probably created here name Shiraz by the Penfold's Grange Famous, whose year 1951 to the most expensive wines in the world counts. With 42,675 hectares in 2010, it is the most common variety. Here she is mainly in the fields Barossa Valley. Clare Valley. Coonawarra. Hunter Valley. Langhorne Creek. McLaren Vale. Murray Darling. Padthaway. Riverina and Riverland represented. To California In 1936 it was acquired by the US oenologist dr. Harold P. Olmo (1909-2006) and occupies 7,803 hectares of vineyards. Other US states with smaller quantities are Arizona. Colorado. Idaho. Oregon. Texas and Washington (1,256 ha).
Other countries are overseas Argentina (12,810 ha), Bolivia. Chile (6,027 ha), China (223 ha), Canada (274 ha), Mexico (145 ha), Myanmar (27 ha), New Zealand (293 ha), Peru (2 ha), South Africa (10,136 ha), Thailand (66 ha) and Uruguay (87 ha), each with an upward trend. The variety took in 2010 a total of 185,568 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 1990, at that time 35,086 hectares, this means a huge increase over a period of 20 years, or more than five times the amount. So she was together with Tempranillo the fastest growing variety. It thus proved in the worldwide varieties ranking the rank 6.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)