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The red grape variety comes from France. There are over 80 Synonyms that testify to old age and worldwide distribution. The most important from a historical perspective, or still used today, are Hermitage, Shiraz ( Australia ), Candive, Marsanne Noir, Petite Sirrah, Petite Syrah, Scyras, Sérène, Serine, Sira, Sirac, Sirah, Syra, Syrac ( France ); Balsamina, Neiretta Cunese, Neiretta del Monregalese, Neiretta del Rosso, Neiretta di Pinerolo, Neiretta di Saluzzo ( Italy ); Shiraz ( South Africa ); Zizak ( Montenegro ). Despite apparently suggestive synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties dureza. Durif (Petite Sirah), Mondeuse Noire. Persan (Serine), Serina e Zeze or Shesh i Zi be confused. The confusing and extremely complicated confusion story about the three varieties Durif, peloursin and Syrah in California in connection with the term Petite Si (y) rah is under the keyword Durif described in detail.

Syrah - grape and leaf

There are many hypotheses about the origin. According to the most common, the variety from the ancient city of Shiraz (Shiraz) in today's Iran (Persia). The famous Persian poet also comes from this city Hafiz (1324-1388). From there it was allegedly brought to France by the French crusader Gaspard de Sterimberg around 1225. According to another, it is said to be a descendant of Pliny the Elder (23-79) and Columella (1st half of the 1st century) mentioned ancient grape variety Allobrogica his. The former also described a “black Aminea “From Syria, which was also assumed to be an ancestor. Furthermore, the possible origins are the Cyclades Greek island of Syra, the city of Syracuse Sicily and also Albania called. However, there is no historical, botanical or genetic evidence for all of these hypotheses.

The likely origin was done through in 2000 DNA analysis from Dr. Carole Meredith and JE Bowers ( University of California ) in collaboration with Jean-Michel Boursiquot ( Montpellier ) clarified. The Syrah variety is probably a natural cross between the two old varieties Mondeuse Blanche (white) x dureza (red). The origin of both parents lies in the former sphere of influence of the Celtic Allobroger tribe between Rhône and Lake Geneva ( Savoy ), which does not confirm the assumption regarding Allobrogica, but explains it. The Swiss biologist Dr. José Vouillamoz (* 1971) found in 2006 by DNA analysis that Pinot most likely is a great grandfather of Syrah. The (French) Syrah is genetically identical to the (Australian) Shiraz, but they have their own story. Syrah / Shiraz was a crossing partner of the new varieties Carina. Durif. Iara. Maximo. Rubin Bolgarskii and Sao Roque,

The medium-ripening vine is susceptible to Botrytis and mites, as well as very susceptible to chlorosis, loves warmth but doesn't like calcareous soils. It produces deep dark, tannin-rich red wines with intense, diverse aromas of black pepper Plums chocolate and leather that have high aging potential. Across from Cabernet Sauvignon are the tannins softer and smoother. The variety is indisputably one of the very big ones in the world, the Cépages nobles, Syrah is going all over France cultivated, but mainly in Languedoc-Roussillon with almost two thirds of the amount, as well as at the Rhone, It is one of the varieties typical of the region Rhône Recipe, Well-known wines are Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Côte Rôtie and Hermitage, There are also many single-variety Syrah wines, especially on the northern Rhône. The stock has exploded from 1,600 hectares to 68,587 hectares in 2010 since the late 1950s.

Also in Spain there was a huge increase from around 3,000 hectares in 2000 to 20,000 hectares in 2010. Here the variety is mainly in the regions Aragon. Extremadura. Catalonia. La Mancha and Murcia in the Levant grown. The legendary Carlos Falcó acquired special merits during the launch from the winery Marqués de Griñón, Likewise there was in Italy a big increase from 1,025 hectares in 2000 to 6,739 hectares in 2010. Here it is mainly in the regions Piedmont. Sicily and Tuscany represented. Other countries in Europe and North Africa were in 2010 Algeria (1,510 ha), Germany (27 ha), Greece (641 ha), Israel (250 ha), Croatia (187 ha), Lebanon. Malta (100 ha), Portugal (3,501 ha), Romania. Switzerland (181 ha), Austria (137 ha), Tunisia (337 ha), Turkey (1,367 ha), Hungary (177 ha) and Cyprus (244 ha).

The wine pioneer James Busby (1802-1871) followed the Syrah in 1833 Australia on. Here it was created under the name Shiraz probably created here by the Penfolds Grange famous, born in 1951 to the most expensive wines in the world counts. With 42,675 hectares in 2010, it is the most common variety. Here it is especially in the areas Barossa Valley. Clare Valley. Coonawarra. Hunter Valley. Langhorne Creek. McLaren Vale. Murray Darling. Padthaway. Riverina and Riverland represented. To California it came in 1936 through the US oenologist Dr. Harold P. Olmo (1909-2006) and occupies 7,803 hectares there. Other US states with smaller quantities are Arizona. Colorado. Idaho. Oregon. Texas and Washington (1,256 ha).

Other countries are overseas Argentina (12,810 ha), Bolivia. Chile (6,027 ha), China (223 ha), Canada (274 ha), Mexico (145 ha), Myanmar (27 ha), New Zealand (293 ha), Peru (2 ha), South Africa (10,136 ha), Thailand (66 ha) and Uruguay (87 ha) with an increasing tendency. The variety occupied a total of 185,568 hectares of vineyards in 2010. Compared to 1990 with 35,086 hectares at the time, this means a huge increase or more than five times the amount in a period of 20 years. With that, she was with Tempranillo the most expanding variety. It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 6.

Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)

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