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table grape

uva de mesa (ES)
raisin de table (F)
table grape (GB)
uva da tavola (I)
uva de mesa (PO)

Colloquial name of varieties which, unlike the wine grapes predominantly as eating grapes for fresh consumption or for the production of raisins be grown. Even the Greeks and Romans in the antiquity Special varieties bred with particularly sweet and large berries, which were the most popular and most important fruit not only among the owners (in addition to the figs) but also among the common people. They were used not only for consumption, but also as a sweetener for food and drinks. In 2014 there were a total of 747 million worldwide quintals (100 kg) grapes produced. of these, 418 (56%) were used as wine grapes for Wine and grape juice as well as non-fermented intermediate products such as RTK, as well as 329 (44%) used as eating grapes, i.e. table grapes and raisins.

Table grapes - still life with grapes, bananas and apple

characteristics

The grapes have different quality criteria than the wine grapes intended for wine. These are looseness of, beautiful color, uniformly large and possibly seedless or juicy berries, thin elastic skin, long berry stalk, firm flesh and durability for longer transport. The seedlessness also causes negative properties caused by Fertilizers. irrigation and growth-regulating measures can be prevented. In order to be big berries gibberellins used. An early one Maturity date is welcome. The sugar content should be at least 130 g / kg berries (55 ° Oe or 11 ° KMW). In the past hundred years, there have been many new varieties created with the desired properties, one of the most important breeding goals is resistance to fungi (see under PIWI ). Often it is hybrid Crossings of EU citizens, With American vines, The American bring the desired one resistance against both mildews on. After harvesting, table grapes do not ripen as non-climacteric fruits. The cultivation is on a warm one climate tied, or they are grown in greenhouses. They come onto the market all year round.

EU law

Since the EU wine market In 2000 table grapes were no longer subject to wine law. The cultivation is no longer linked to the wine production register and is free. Grapes classified as wine grapes must not be marketed as table grapes. None from the table grapes Federweißer respectively. Storm. grape or Wine be generated; not even for personal use. The cultivation of wine grape varieties for commercial table grape production is not permitted. But there are also so-called cut grapes, which are wine grapes that can also be marketed as grapes. These are for example Chasselas (Gutedel) and Schiava Grossa,

In the trade, table grapes are offered in the three quality classes Extra (immaculate), I (good quality) and II (marketable). The following requirements apply to all classes: none rot. Mould- or pest infestation, without visible foreign matter ( Pesticides, Dirt), natural fragrance film and sufficient Maturity level,

production countries

The three main producing countries of table grapes in terms of quantity are China. India and the Turkey, where the share of table grapes is 85%; the remaining 15% are wine varieties. Together, these three countries produce around half of the world's volume. Other major producers are Brazil (34% of national production), Chile. Greece (41% of national production), Netherlands (in winter from greenhouses), Italy. Japan. Portugal. Spain. South Africa and some former USSR countries.

Table grapes - Afus Ali, Muscat d’Alexandrie, Sultana, Cardinal

Table grape varieties

Today there are well over a thousand different types of table grapes, 99% of them new varieties, Some of them are also called ornamental vines suitable. The world's most productive table grape grower was undoubtedly the Hungarian János Mathiász (1838-1921), who made around 3,500 crossings. The Italian pomologist Alberto was also of great importance Pirovano (1884-1973). The picture shows the world's top 4 table grapes; the most important in bold :

Achladi to Aurora

Baco Chasselas to Burra Blanca

Calastra to Csaba Gyöngye

Dabouki to Duchess of Buccleugh

Edelweiss to Excelsior

Ferdinand de Lesseps to Franca

Gallant to golden queen

Rough to Huxelrebe

Ingram's Muscat to Italia

Jifeng to Jumbo Red

Kachichi to Kyoho

Lady Downe's Seedling to Lyana

Madeleine Angevine to Muskateller

Nero to Nyora

Oeillade to Osella

Palatina to Pukhliakovsky

Red Globe to Ruby Okuyama

Schiava Grossa to Super Hamburg

Terez to Triomphe d'Alsace

Urbana to Zeyu

Still life: by David Mark from Pixabay
Table grapes: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)

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