Colloquial name of varieties, which, in contrast to the wine grapes, predominantly as Esrew grapes for fresh consumption or for the production of raisins be grown. Even the Greeks and Romans have in the antiquity Special varieties with particularly sweet and large berries were bred, which were the most popular and important fruit not only for the owners (besides the figs) but also for the common people. They were not only used for consumption, but also as a sweetener for food and drinks (see also the eating and drinking habits under Satyricon ). In 2012, a total of 701 million quintals (in Austria hundredweight = 100 kg) grapes were produced worldwide. Of these, 409 (58%) were used as wine grapes and grape juice and 292 (42%) as espresso grapes, ie table grapes and raisins.
The grapes have different quality criteria than wine grapes. These are looseness of, beautiful color, uniformly large and if possible seedless or low-kernel juicy berries, thin elastic shell, long berry stem, firm pulp and durability for longer transport. The seedlessness also causes negative properties through Fertilizers. irrigation and growth-regulating measures are prevented. In order to become big berries gibberellins used. An early one Maturity date is desired. The sugar content should be at least 130 g / kg berries (55 ° Oe or 11 ° KMW). Many have been in the last hundred years new varieties created with the desired properties. Often they are hybrid Crossings of EU citizens, With American vines, The American bring the desired resistance against both mildews on. After harvest, table grapes do not ripen as non-climacteric fruits.
Since the EU wine market In 2000, table grapes are no longer subject to wine law. The cultivation is thus no longer bound to the vine register of wine production and is free. Grapes classified as wine grape must not be marketed as table grapes. A variety is either as Quality wine-grape variety or classified as a table grape. But there are also so-called cut grapes, which are wine grapes, which may also be marketed as Esstre grapes. These are for example Chasselas (Gutedel) and Schiava Grossa, In the trade table grapes are offered in the three classes extra (immaculate), I (good quality) and II (marketable). The following applies to all classes: no decay, mold or pest infestation, no visible foreign substances (pesticides, dirt), natural scent film and sufficient degree of ripeness. The cultivation is on a warm climate tied or they are pulled in hothouses. They come on the market all year round.
Important production countries are Brazil. Chile. Greece. Netherlands (in winter from greenhouses), Italy. Japan. Portugal. Spain. South Africa. Turkey (world leading producer) and some former USSR states. The world's most prolific table grape breeder was undoubtedly the Hungarian János Mathiász (1838-1921), who performed 3,500 intersections. Also of great importance was the Italian Pomologist Alberto Pirovano (1884-1973). Today there are well over a thousand different types of table grapes, 99% of them are new varieties, Some of them are also called ornamental vines suitable. The world's most important table grapes are marked bold :
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)