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sabor (PO)
sabor (ES)
saveur, goût (F)
gusto (I)
taste (GB)

The taste sense (also Gustatorik of lat. Gustare = costs, taste) serves the control of the ingested food. He counts as well as the odor to the chemical senses. In a broad sense, the taste sensation is a complex interaction of the gustatory (tasting) flavor and taste olfactory (smelling) sense of smell. This is supplemented with tactile or trigeminal Sensory, pain and temperature information from the oral cavity. The latter include, for example, the sensations sharp (hot) and astringent (Effect on tannin-rich red wines, which must not be confused with bitter). In the narrower sense, however, the taste consists only of relatively few flavors taken up by the tongue and partly also by the pharyngeal mucosa.

Tongue with the tastes and receptors
Picture left (edited): Copyright: Peter Hermes Furian
Picture right (edited): By NEUROtiker - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link

For a long time, only four flavors were known, namely bitter. salty. angry and sweet, In the 1990s, became the fifth flavor umami (also meaty, hearty) defined and scientifically recognized. Finally, in 2011, humans became aware of the existence of receptors for fat and so on greasy noted as a possible sixth flavor. Other possible flavor qualities under discussion are "water" (in pure form "tastes like nothing"), metallic and alkaline, Depending on the substance, the perception of a flavor depends on the quantity and is considered Perceptual threshold (Border).

The receptor cells for the taste are arranged in buds, which are on the tongue in the taste buds, but also in the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Approximately 25% are located on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, another 50% on the posterior third. The remainder spread to soft palate, larynx, nasopharynx, and upper esophagus. On the tongue there are concentrated areas for the individual flavors. For sweet this is the tongue tip, for salty the front and for sour the rear tongue margin area (left and right), as well as for bitter the upper tongue area in the rear area. The areas not but not clearly demarcated, but fluent.

The taste sensation is passed on to the brain and here only "translated" or perceived. The disturbance of the perception of taste is called dysgeusia, the loss of the sense of taste as ageusia. Both can be caused by various diseases, but also by drugs. The taste was developed in the course of evolution to allow for the necessary conclusions about the nutritional value and the tolerability of food for survival. So sweet for carbohydrate, as well as fat and umami for protein-rich foods that are high nutritional value respectively. The salt taste or hunger for salty on the other hand helps humans to keep the mineral balance in the body as balanced as possible. Bitter and sour taste, however, indicate toxic or spoiled food.

The number of papillae is constantly decreasing, so the sense of taste weakens with age. Humans are able to re-learn biologically / genetically negative sensory impressions as positive. Social pressure also plays a key role here. For example, only a few make it beer disgustingly bitter it may taste at first enjoyment. For the gustatory (g) and trigeminal (t) sensations are mainly responsible:

The many flavorings (Fragrances), however, are from receptors on a postage stamp-sized surface in the upper nasal cavity space as odor perceived. When enjoying food and drinks as well as at Weingenuss These impressions of the tongue and nose, which are only received in the brain, combine to create an overall impression, so that the definitive origin can no longer be comprehended. In combination with the taste sensations and in addition to the fragrances creates a complex variety of sensory nuances.

The human nose is with the sense of smell but far superior to the tongue or the sense of taste. Everyone knows the phenomenon that you can identify the flavors in a cold, the food but "taste nothing" - correctly, but it should mean "smell nothing". The flavors are based on the content of unfermented residual sugar and be in the bandwidth dry to sweet shown. These terms are wine-regulated with grams / liter. See the related listings below sparkling wine (Sparkling wine, champagne etc.) and sugar content (Still wine).

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